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Patron: HRH The Prince of Wales 

Officers and Committee from March 2000 

President: M.H. Rickard, Pear Tree Cottage, Kyre, Tenbury Wells, Worcs. WR15 8RN 


Vice-Presidents: J.H. Bouckley, A.R. Busby, Dr N J. Hards, Dr T.G. Walker 

Honorary General Secretary: Miss J.M. Ide, 42 Crown Woods Way, Eltham, London SE9 2NN 

Tel./Fax: 020 8850 3218; E-mail: 

Treasurer: A. Leonard, 1 1 Victory Road, Portsmouth, Hants. POl 3DR 


Membership Secretary: M.S. Porter, 5 West Avenue, Wigton, Cumbria CA7 9LG 

Tel.: 016973 43086; E-mail: 

Meetings Secretary: p j. A cock, 1 3 Star Lane, St Mary Cray, Kent BR5 3LJ 


Conserx>ation Officer/Recorder: R.J. Cooke. 1 5 Conduit Road, Stamford, Lines. PE9 1 QQ 


Editor of the Bulletin: Miss A.M. Paul, Department of Botany, The Natural History Museum, 

Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD; E-mail: 1 
Editors of the Fern Gaze 

The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road,' London SW7 5BD 


Editor of the Pteridologist: Prof. B.A. Thomas, The Welsh Institute of Rural Studies. 

University of Wales, Llanbadarn Fawr, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3AL 

Fax: 0170 61 12M F-mail P\nd<>| t > 

Editor of BPS WWW Site - A.C. Pigott, Kersey's Farm, Mendlesham, 

Stowmarket, Suffolk IP14 5RB; E-mail: 

Committ "-- R.G. Ackers, L. Kirkham, Dr S. Martinelli, 

R.N. Timm, Prof. A.C. Wardlaw, B. Wright 

Booksales Organiser: SJ. Munyard, 234 Harold Road, Hastings, East Sussex TN35 5NG 


Horticultural Information Officer: A . R . Busby , l6 Kirby Corner Road, Canley, 

Coventry CV4 8GD; E-mail: HorticulturalInfonnation@cBPS.oiB.ak 

Merchandise Organiser: Mrs L.I. Craddock. 40 Russell Drive, Ampthill, Beds. MK45 2TX 

Plant Exchange Organisers: Mr & Mrs R.J. Smith, 184 Solihull Road. Shi 

Spore Exchangi 

s & J.A. Crabbe, Department of Botany, 

Organisers: M r & Mrs B. Wright, 1 30 Prince Rupert Drive, 

Tockwith, York Y026 7PU; E-mail: 
rf Greenfield & Centenary Funds: M.H. Rickard, Miss J.M. Ide, A. Leonard 

The BRITISH PTERIDOLOGICAL SOCIETY was founded in 1891 and t 

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THE FEB o l ? nni 



Vol. 5 2000 No. 5 


NEW ZEALAND - 11-26 February 

Introduction [Alastair Wardlaw] 

This excursion, held in New Zealand during summertime in the Southern Hemisphere, was 
a good opportunity to be away from Britain in February! At a distance of 1 1 .500 miles from 
the UK, this magical antipodean country is about as far as one can get from what is home 
for most BPS members. 

The excursion took place through the initiative and under the leadership of Jennifer Ide. It 
was she who not only had the idea for an excursion to New Zealand ( 
had), but who found the time and energy to turn the idea into a reality, 
shouldered the detailed planning of numbers, logistics and costs during the 
preparation beforehand. On the trip itself she was always to hand with the daily p 
magically photocopied, cheerfully answering questions and giving 
everything passed off smoothly and without untoward occurrences, e> 

which was de, I he excursion wa 

am Australia, Belgium, France and USA in addition t 
tl of 24 participants. 

. Arthur's Pass Road. New Zealand. 

The excursion provided a very full fortnight of fern hunting and getting to know well over 
half of the c.200 species of New Zealand pteridophytes. In this we were greatly helped by 
Jennifer having organised the services of local fern experts to act as guides at the numerous 
sites we visited. Beforehand, the experts also provided checklists of what to expect at the 
different places, so we could do some homework ahead of the site visits. Best of all, they 
took us to favoured locations for ferns and could tell us on the spot which of the 17 species 
of Blechnum or 22 species of Hymenophyllum we were looking at. For more leisurely 
identifications, many of us had the excellent book by Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 
(1989): New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants. 

Aside from the pteridology, the excursion also provided fascinating insights into other 
aspects of the flora and fauna, and into the history, geography and culture of New Zealand. 
Thus most of us started out being unfamiliar not only with the fems, but also with the rest 
ot the vegetation, particularly the trees. But soon we found ourselves coming to grips with 
Maori names like rimu, kauri and totara for three of the common and majestic species of 
large trees under which the ferns were growing. 

New Zealand spreads across latitudes equivalent to Southern France, Spain and North 
Africa in the Northern Hemisphere, but it has a much wetter climate. The distinctiveness of 
the New Zealand flora derives from its geographical isolation from other major land- 
masses: the nearest is Australia which lies over 1,000 miles to the west. About 40% of New 
Zealand's ferns are endemic, that is, do not occur naturally elsewhere. Very few of them are 
available commercially in the UK, but the BPS spore lisl usuall) contains a fair selection of 
New Zealand species. 

Christchurch and Port Hills (Saturday 12 February) 

The excursion started on Friday 11th February, in the Country Glen Lodge Motel in 
Uinstchurch, the largest city on the South Island of New Zealand. Weather in Christchurch 
that day had been fine, sunny and about 20°C, with a moderate wind. Some members of the 
party had arrived a few days previously and had visited the Botanic Gardens which has a 
useful collection of New Zealand ferns, some of which grew in a fern house with walls 
made from tree-fern trunks. My wife and I had flown in from Australia that afternoon, 
while some others did not get in till near midnight. When we assembled on the Friday 
evening, introductions were made, old friends feigned surprise at meeting each other in 
such a faraway place, and then Jennifer briefed us on the programme for the next few days. 
The next morning, after an early start to pick up the six pre-arranged hire cars, we made our 
way southwards out of Christchurch to the rendezvous point, about 30 minutes away in the 
Fort Hills on the edge of the Banks Peninsula. Here we were met at the Sugar Loaf 
Viewpoint by the first of three fern experts who had migrated from the UK to New Zealand, 
Professor John Lovis of the University of Canterbury in Christchurch. It was a good place 
to take pictures of the city of Christchurch, about 500 metres lower in altitude on the 
Canterbury Plain below. A harrier hawk made purposeful passes across the grassy landscape. 
The excursion proper started a short drive away at Mount Cavendish, which at first looked 
somewhat unpromising for fern hunting. The scene was of parched, rolling hills, with long 
yellow grass and no sign of water. But it was a special habitat - what John Lovis called a 
ot-rock site' on account of the dark basaltic outcrops taking up the sun's heat and, one 
would have thought, cooking the adjacent vegetation. Nevertheless, ferns lurked in the 
crevices, and quite abundantly too. A stroll down the tarmac road in the squintingly bright 
hght soon revealed a total of nine species of fern in the roadside rocks and banks. There 
was a good-sized patch of the New Zealand bracken, Pteridium esculentum, in the dry 
grassland below the road. This plant is much more wiry than our British species and has 
primary and secondary rachises of a prominent orange-brown colour. Then, in the rocky 

embankment at the roadside, we found the delightful /7<wov/-»% rutiiolius. Much film was 
expended on this rarity, which John Lovis said would usually have shrivelled by ibis date 
but had been preserved by an unusually wet summer. Unfortunately, this was the only time 
we saw Pleurosorus on the whole excursion. Nearb> were two species o! Vhcilanthcs. 
C. sieberi (= humilis) and C. disicms. and also Pelhua calidimpium. A familial-looking 
Polypodium was, we were assured by John Lo\is. none other than P. vulgare, whieh he 
described as 'adventive', i.e. introduced. We also saw our first New Zealand Polystichum. 
P. richardii, which subsequently became a common sight. Considerable pleasure was 
generated by finding two ferns that were not on the expert's list for that locality 4 pier i 
flabellifolium and A. terrestre. 

Our second site was nearby, on the Lyttelton Reserve at Mount Pleasant, about 500m 
altitude. A short walk uphill ; tight us to the base of a south -facing and 

therefore (in the Southern Hemisphere) shaded, basalt cliff and led into scrub woodland, 
where altogether the fern flora expanded to 22 listed species. There was moisture in deep 

bushes. It was also a place of great scenic beauts, with the a/ute waters oi' Lyttelton 
Harbour a long way below and surrounded by the crater run of an extinct volcano I hi-, was 
the view where subsequently we enjoyed our packed lunches, with musical entertainment 
from bellbirds. Here we had our first taste of the richness in blechnums and aspleniums. 
which is such a feature of the New Zealand fern flora. In a short distance along the base of 
the cliff and into the woodland there were B. chambersii. B.fluviatile, B. montanum, 
B. vulcanicum, B. procerwn and B. procerum/capense complex, plus Asplenium 
\. gracillimum, A. hookerianum, A. lyallii and A. terrestre. Rather stunted 
Rumohra adiantiformis grew in rock crevices, while Phwmttouirus </n< rsifolius scrambled 
epilithically, its strap-shaped fronds becoming pinnate as they enlarged. Among other 
delights were the minute Gnuwnitis alnihi. the familiar house plant Pellaea nmmdi folia. 
the unfamiliar Adiantum cunninghamii and more Polyslichum richardii. The expert's list 
for the locality had five species of Hymenophyllum on it, all marked as rare. Of these, 
n and H. rarum were observed by some, but I personally did not see them. The 
path also gave us our first sight of the fearsome-spined New Zealand nettle, Urticaferox, a 
prickly bush whose sting was said to be severe. On the plus side it is a food plant for red 
and yellow admiral butterflies. 

After lunch, our third location was a few kilometres away at Ohamu Bush Reserve, near 
Gibraltar Rock. Here the roadside bank was rich in the common blechnums - B.fluviatile, 
B. chambersii and B. discolor, and aspleniums - A. gracillimum, A. hookerianum, 
A. flabellifolium and A. terrestre, with possible hybrids (as if the Asplenium flora wasn't 
complicated enough!). We steered well clear of the deadly Urticaferox that was present in 
. After a short, but photographically prolonged, walk up the road, 
;h had only recently been fenced off from 
; not reached its full species diversity. For example, tree- 
ferns {Cyathea smithii and Dicksonia squarrosa) were present only as very young and 
untrunked plants. Although our eyes were on the ferns, we could not help noticing that the 
trees also deserved attention. There was a large tree fuchsia (Fuchsia excorticata) with 
distinctive, peeling, bright reddish-brown bark and a species whose common name was 
'five fingers' (Pseudopanax arboreus). Our second Polystichum, P. vestitum, with its 
shining green fronds was prominent. The track through the Reserve was mostly through 
woodland and contained numerous pteridological delights, such as the long tresses of 
Asplenium flaccidum hanging epiphytically from branch bases high up in trees, the very 
finely-divided crape fern, Leptopteris hymenophylloides (a member of the Osmundaceae), 
Leptolepia novae-zelandiae, the Hypolepis species, H. millefolium and H. rufobarbata and 
finally, the scrubby and tangled Paesia scaberula, which we were later to see elsewhere. 


Christchurch to Arthur's Pass (Sunday 13 February) 

The second day differed from the previous one in being less structured, in having no local 
guide, and in giving us, after midday, very wet weather on the high ground at Arthur's Pass. 
Our route was westwards out of Christchurch and across the Canterbury Plain, an 
agricultural region. The route went across rivers with the braided gravel bars in midstream 
that are so characteristic of New Zealand. We were also introduced to another recurring 
! of New Zealand rivers, namely the single-track road bridges, where driver priority- 
» along the route. The terrain had by now become 
s reaching to the tops, and lupins and viper's bugloss by the 
roadside. It was an empty land, with no farms, homes or villages. The first scheduled stop 
was at Lake Lyndon, in the foothills of the Southern Alps at an altitude of 850m. Here the 
attraction was P Uae on two stony lakeshore sites. The party divided; 

both groups found what they thought might be Pilularia but which turned out to be a 

The next stop was at Castle Hill, a 'karat' landscape at 900m, consisting of tall and oddly- 
shaped limestone outcrops on hilly grasslands. Part of the group was taken around by a very 
knowledgeable Maori guide from the Parks Service who pointed out rock paintings in 
charcoal and a white pigment. Among the ferns were the tiny, epilithic Grammitis 
patagonica, Cystopteris tasmanica, and relatively abundant Asplenium lyallii in hollows 
and fissures in the limestone. A single plant of Blechnum chambersii was recorded. 
Another botanical feature of the site was the strange Aciphylla squarrosa, a spiny 
umbelliferous plant that the Maoris gathered for its roots, which were steamed. The day had 

We checked into the isolated Bealey Hotel, an oasis of habitation in an otherwise empty 
land, with a stone moa outside. From there it was a short distance through forested country 
to Arthur's Pass Village where the Visitor Centre provided shelter as rain came on. The 
torrential rain and strong wind did not stop some of us from driving the extra few 
kilometres to Arthur's Pass Summit, at 940m. Here, at the start of Dobson Nature Walk, 
ours were the only cars in the car park, not surprising in view of the weather which was not 
welcoming for walkers. Polystichum vestitum and a new blechnum, B. penna-marina, were 
abundant, together with B. montanum. There were also two lycopodiums, L. scariosum and 
L. fastigiatum, creeping through the other vegetation, and a Hypolepis, probably 
H. millefolium. The route took us uphill through subalpine scrub, which would have been 
very heavy going without the gravel track and boardwalk sections through it. 
HymenophyUum villosum was common on the ground, while Grammitis patagonica was 
quite abundant as an epiphyte. We found a single patch of Lycopodium australianum. 
Among the angiosperms there was a white-flowered gentian and the large-leaved 
! lyallii. After beating a retreat from the deluge on the high ground, we returned 
s hotel to change into dry clothes and then some had a walk, not scheduled on the 
! nearby Waimakiriri Forest. This yielded several blechnums, Polystichum 
vestitum, abundant Grammitis (possibly G. billardierei) on earth banks and two species of 
filmy fern. 

Arthur's Pass to Hokitika (Monday 14 February) 

On the third day we left the Bealey Hotel in rain and mist and drove along the mostly well- 
surfaced, but unreliable road through Arthur's Pass. This mad is noted for being liable to 
closure in the winter because of snow and at all times because of washout or blockage due 
to piles of rock that come down the steep and unstable slopes on either side. Having 
crossed the Pass, the countryside became open and rolling. For the first time on the 


ion, tree-ferns becan 

Initially they were Dicksonit 

its skin 

of cane-like stipes 

with its 

thick black stipes an 

jade cei 

itre of Hokitika on fr 


asticall) welcomed 1 

Pamela Serett. The> provide 

a gener 

al talk about the distr 

ind large stature. Our d 

oused with Hdith and Pamela a 

km from Hokitika, where we took the Kahikatea ^ 

x-iduoLis/podocarp' forest. The sign at the start of the walk deser 
nutes, but not for pteridologists who have to stop even lew pao 
o hours. Additional to the terns, we had some ot the prominent 
icewood, in its juvenile form with downward-pointing narrow le; 
nk, rimu, with graceful weeping foliage and white pint 

T. renifonne. the kidney fern, scrambling i 
epiphytes were Ctenopteris heterophyila. Rui 


this walk was that we 
ith many of the ferns that only three days pre 
The West Coast 
The central portion of the \ 
of the Southern Alps, 

sedimentary rock called greywacke, made by compression c 
sedimentary layers of mud and silt forming white quartz and feldspar are interposed. The 
P ,ex ail n, w inds are caught on the west coast, depositing their heavy burden of rain all the 
year round. The proximity of the mountains to the sea makes this a very wet and ferny area, 
with a low population of humans and even of sheep. 
Hokitika to Fox Glacier (Tuesday 15th February) 

The West Coast of New Zealand would be better named the Wet Coast, for it rains on 
average five days out of seven throughout the year. It was to live up to its reputation for our 
two days there! The trip from Hokitika to Fox Glacier township took 2Vi hours along a road 

a Serrett and Edith Shaw. (Miro/brown pine) and P. taxij 

, (Matai/black pine), angiosperm t 

and shrubs such as coprosmas, pittosporums, Metrosideros umbellata, the occasi. 

rseudopanax sp. and several other species including Dicksonia squarrosa, which fori 

- canopy of the forest, whilst Cyathea smithii was abundant as an understorey t 

S q C .u ZH™ "™ ait y uc £ l " JIie as an epipnyte percned 

, gradually enclosing 

Species of Metrosideros usually begin life as an epiphyte perched , 
develop as a hane. Their aerial roots grow down towards the ground, 
the trunk, whilst thp hrc^^, „, — - «.. _.__ , . ... 

51 the branches 

eventually develop a large c 

^-supporting tree is produced. Some species reach 

ol the host. Eventually ; 

massive proportions. New Zealand boasts' a number of Metrosideros species, commonly 
known as ratas, which are a profusion of red or white blossom in season. Nothafagm 
species, the southern beech as they are popularly known in Europe, are not present in thi: 
area hence its description as 'beech-poor' by Edith. 

After half an hour we were no further than five metres from the start of the walk, so ricl 
5 forest in ferns, especially filmy ferns, which, of course, were all still unfamiliar u 

tne majority of the party. Some 
forest, leaving those interested in 

ny and required close-up viewing with a 

" -w^kuc meir distinctive characters. Tutoring a group of twenty people on 

e ,?l!"_ th ! fieId can be a lon g task! Gradually, the party dispersed further into the 
ae of Tmesipteris, Hymenophyllum and 
mis species. I was lured by the carboniferous look of the thick vegetation, thick tree- 
at odd diagonals leaning on hapless tree-ferns, and many fallen nurse trees in the 
Y ground. The fallen tree-ferns ran along the ground then turned up through 90 
making a comical sight. Everything was covered in a lurid green film of moss, 
y 1,verwo *s, epiphytic ferns and flowering epiphytes including orchids. No hint 
or brown bark was visible. This surely must be quite one of the most verdant places 
nnd, and yet quite spooky in the drizzling rain. 

When the 


richomanes reniforme, swathed around many ti 
i-taking. Interestingly, few fronds bore spores, 

caught the light, the s _ 

s held for all locations in which we found tins s P eaev One huge old trunk of 
inma racemosa, with its pittosporum-like leaf, was covered in a multitude of 
^ species, the ferns including Hymenophyllum flexuosum, H. ferrugineum (olive- 

coloured with gold hai; 

rs), H.flabellatm 

H {* 

ith brigh 

t green pin 


). A.flaccidum 


p. Jhnrit 

him. Cteno, 

Phymuto.sorm dhrrsifolii 

is and Grammitis 


rdicrei. A 

Stellas, with 

like lea\o [■: 


ins. Des, 

Mte the dam 

rarely with bulbils; could 

it have been A. gt 

i which it eat 

i-evv amongst the t 

ronds o\ 

specie's o| // 


> uu. 


id Cuithfa s, 

metres in height, althoug 

Sehefjlera plants. The c< 

J he; 

i\y ramia 

11 meant lha 

dwelling ferns, such as 

Asplenium bulbij 

and Ble 

(■/»'"'» Z 7 " 1 " 

epiphytes. It was a surpris 

,e to hear the eicac 

the iain"! 

Alongside the hank ol ilk 

: creek, which the 


for some du 

j'neolor. B. et 

ilensoi and giant 

ps of /'/;< 


aspect of the Pneumutop 

teri.s suggesting tl 

Kit th 

ey really 

streamers. A 'drunken' t 

ree-fern. held up 

by a 


,. was laden 

Tmesipiens plants! 

This extremely beautiful forest was one of the fermest ecosystems ue were to ms.i on the 

the many hymenophyllums noted were H.demissum. H. ferrugineum. H. Jlcdnllaium. 
H. llcMumun. //. mulnfidum. H. revolution and //. seabrum. Another epiphytic filmy tern 
was Triehomanes venosum. On the ground grew more Blechnum species: B. chambersiu 
/>' (hiviatile. B. penna-marina and B. nigrum. The B. nigrum looked exactly that and was 
rather small, insignificant and difficult to find, grow mi-! as it did away Horn the path. 
Leproptens superba abounded in some areas and though scruffy compared with plants >een 
elsewhere, was nevertheless fascinating with its feathery olive green fronds. One of these 

Forest on Minnehaha W alk. Fox GU ier. New Zealand. 

Prince of Wales ferns seen by the stream had perhaps 20-30 fronds and measured two 
metres across. Asplenium polyodon was hiding amongst tree roots but also occurred as an 
epiphyte with fronds up to one metre long. Other members of the party spotted Leptolepia 
novae-zehmdiae. Phymatosorus diversifolius and Lycopodium varium. A pond was found 
with a profusion of enormous tadpoles, apparently of the Australian whistling frog. 
Tmesipteris elongata and T. tannensis, these fascinating epiphytic ferns lacking roots, were 
both found. T. elongata is distinguished by the rounded distal ends of its sporangia and 
tapering leaf apices, whilst T. tannensis has pointed sporangia and blunt leaf apices ending 
in a long spine-like tip. 

Our next site was a tourist path descending by steps to a bridge over the Fox River which 
gave a view of Fox Glacier. There were fewer species to be seen along this path compared 
to the Minnehaha track and only two new species were recorded: Blechnum vulcanicum and 
Lastreopsis hispida. There was the chance for those who did not see it on the Minnehaha 
track to see Blechnum colensoi, the waterfall fern, in its typical habitat, its fronds hanging 
down the steep, perpetually dripping, wet banks that flanked the path. Asplenium polyodon 
was seen as a terrestrial fern, its more typical habit in the far south of New Zealand; in the 
rest of the country it is more commonly epiphytic. As we walked along the path we were 
enveloped in the heavenly scent reminiscent of benzoic acid belonging to the epiphytic 
taster orchid. Larina autumnalis. its long drooping inflorescences just coming into bloom. 
At the bottom, the suspension bridge crossed a glacial torrent milky with suspended rock 
flour. This walk ended with another of Edith and Pam's delightful teas of home-made 

We arrived at the car park for Lake Matheson in pouring rain and set off to walk around the 
lake after admiring the bank of Blechnum vulcanicum and Stichcrus cunnin^hamii. among 
which were two or three specimens of Cyathea colensoi, along with the ever present Paesia 
scaherula and Histiopten.s incisa. Cxathea colensoi is a prostrated) tree-fern, with 
distinctively hairy upper leaf surfaces and lower surfaces with red stellate hairs. Not far into 
the walk, in the forest, Lindsaea trichomanoides was seen by those privileged to understand 
a much corrupted word of mouth message passed between groups of drenched, straggling 
fern-hunters! Other species new for the day were Blechnum procerum. Cxathea dealhata. 
Diplazium australe, Hymenophyllum rarum, H. sanguinolentum, II. villosum. Hypolepis 
umhi»ua. Lycopodium volubile, Pteridium esculcnlum and Pxrrosia eleaymfolia. 
Trichomanes reniforme was particularly abundant, both as an epiphyte and terrestrially- 
Noisy frogs were heard but not seen in the river which was never far from the path. Few 
members actually made it to the lake, for by now most had had enough of the incessant 
drenching rain; careful observation, let alone recording by note or photograph was 
impossible; the car park cafe was much more inviting! A pity, for Lake Matheson is one of 
a number of chocolate-box views to be found in New Zealand. 
Fox Glacier to Westport (Wednesday 16 February) 

Overnight 15cm of rain fell causing the rivers to swell to brown torrents, and it was still 
falling when we left to drive to Westport, the trees and mountains again wreathed in cloud, 
not encouraging roadside touristic or ferning stops. The forests were lull of tree-terns and 
icreasingly common as we travelled 
:he tops of the mountains when the 
?ood view of the glacier could be had from the road. In between the 
i clamp meadows with abundant Rume.x. Hag ins. pampas, phormimn 
necios, Juncus and grazing cows, inter-mixed with patches of maquis- 

, thesea-bree/es tree-ferns flourished, but 

After coffee in Hokitika. around \ 
north, driving straight through th< 
the road runs close to the coast, tl 

•pancake rocks'. The pro: 
appearance of the coastal ve 
species being tree-ferns (r 
racemosa, gradually becom 
with leaves standing up to 
persistent nikau palms. It w; 

dentum and cord> lines (cabbage trees i 
of I'hormiiim sp. iNew Zealand bla\> 

something of the appearance of a Mediterranean garden 
which had gone wild. Of particular interest in the open commim.iK ^ .^v. A </' • ' ■ ^ 
ohUmaifolhim and \. ohmsotwn. both i>pical coastal terns, the , 
salt spray, and in the closed woodland communitj 
still as yet unnamed. Also seen in the won.: 

cluimhcrsii As/-./ ium bidbitcrum. A l < '" h " ' 

Phvwatoumis scandens and P. dnersifolnn. the : -^ "^ 

more varied thai - lv segmented fronds of P. scandens. More readily 

dl stinctive, however, are the rtuzomes. fleshy green with dark apposed 1 sea es in 
P. diversifolius and much thinner with erect dark scales in P. scandens. The latter 
more frequently totally epiphytic. 

The stiff upward pointing leaves of the nikau palms provide little ^^J^ *??™ 
U fronds of the palm fall to the ground complete with their huge 
leaf bases, so woe betide any animal or plant they happen to fall on! 

d the Truman Track through the coastal f 

Just north of Punakail 

pounng with rain! This was anotner weiru juu^ — — ^ ^S^Z 

today for the first time in any number. Mar 

in South Island were present, but among t 

epiphytic Tmesipteris elongata and T. tannensis, many V 

vays a fascination to ptendologists from western Europe and possibly the 
amongst us), Asplemum vucillhmun .smaller and usually non-bulbiferous 
,ared to A. bulbiferum of which it was once considered a subspecies), and the delicate 
L growing epiphyte of coastal areas in South lshmd,Lastreopsis h ispi da, and Pyrrosia 

we found Asplenium obtusatw ; side track from 

the main one took one into a totally different type of community with Podocarpus totara 
and Dacrydium cupressoides as the dominant species, both magnificent trees capable of 
reaching 30 metres and important timber trees; the ground vegetation was almost a pure 
sward of Blechnum discolor stretching throughout, a truly amazing and beautiful sight. The 
reason for this sudden and local change in the vegetation we did not know, but a change in 
soil type might be responsible. 

Cape Foulwind was so named by Captain James Cook because of the c 
experienced there and not because of the foul fishy smell, i 
from its famous seal colony! In the evening light, the rain at last having stopped, this was a 
fitting place to end the day's ferning. Expecting to just drool over a fur seal colony, we also 
found many ferns on the seaside rocks and cliffs. However, one first had to escape the 
attentions of the rather insistent wekas (a scrub hen) before starting up the cliff path. On the 
cliff-like banks were small clumps of Blechnum blechnoides and Asplenium obtusatum 
which delight in this maritime exposure, as well as many other, by now familiar, ferns. 

i none of Cornwall's 
t and supports a 
n population than the whole of the long west coast of New Zealand. It is 
famous for hippy-like settlements, potters, artists, market gardens, and above all, fine 
Sauvignon Blanc! The vegetation in this mildest of districts harbours some northern species 

We left Westport for Nelson, the road turning directly inland and following the long, 
winding Buller River valley through farmland, mostly down to grazing pastures and large 
plantations of the non-native Pinus radiata, especially on the second half of the journey to 
Nelson. Any evidence of native vegetation for approximately the last 50 miles to Nelson 
was sadly lacking. This change in land use is a reflection of the increasingly drier climate as 
one leaves the West Coast and travels east across South Island. A common and abundant 
weed is the European gorse. The principal roadside fern was Blechnum discolor, but the 
usual opportunistic group were apparent as well: Paesia scaberula, Blechnum novae- 
zelandiae, Pter idium esculentum, and several of us, despite the pressure of time, felt we 
must stop to photograph 
cascading Lycopodium 

the roadside 

Eileen Heatherbell' 

garden, it contained so many surprises. To one side of the house, under a glass roof, was a 
bed waist high with ferns, which collection anyone would envy. Dicksonia squarrosa 
trunks, some sprouting, formed the walls of a fernery roofed over with two layers of shade 
netting. Inside, a path wound between slightly raised, terraced beds containing Mich 
treasures as Pellaea calidirupium, the so-called hot-rocks Pellaea seen at Port Hills. It was 
pleasing to see the native Xcphrolcpis hirsutula. \ loidttoha an alien, being so much 
more common in the wild and in cultivation. It seemed that all imaginable was there, from 
tree-ferns to epiphytic Pyrrosia eleagnifolia, and all attractively displayed. 
A number of the party went to see the Marsden Valley Road Nelson Area School's re- 
he area contained its original native trees, which 
'■amijlnnis in flower, giving a heavy jasmine scent 
lacropiper excelsum with its heart-shaped leaves. 
The aim of the project was to re-introduce as many as possible of the herbaceous plants that 
had died out. These included many ferns, such as the smooth Lastreopsis glabella and 
velvety L. velutina. The climbing Blechnum filiforme and Phymatosorus scandens were 
particularly abundant. Other species seen included Blechnum chambersU, B. penna-marma. 
Polystichum richardii, Pellaea rotundijolia. Phymatosorus divcrsttohus. Aspleiuum 

Pneumatopteris pennigera and Pyrrosia clcawilolia. Dense -hade, rolling twigs and leaves 
on the ground, few plants on the floor other than ferns and the deafening shrill of cicadas 
gave the area a genuine feel. 

Another party went to the Nikau Native Plant Nursery in Nelson, where Michael Crawford 
showed them around. The quality of the plants was particularly impressive and it was useful 
to be able to compare at close hand young plants of Dicksonia lanata (not yet seen in the 
wild), Cyathca cunninghamii and C. dealbata. 

That evening we had a group supper at the Quayside Restaurant with Edith and Pam. after 
which we joined the Nelson Fern Society in Jaycees Hall at Founders Park, a restored 
village Several of us had taken photographic slides of ferns from different parts of the 
world and we gave a series of short presentations. Alan Ogden treated us to ferns of 
Canada, Graham Ackers - Macaronesia, Michel Boudrie - French Guyana. Sylvia 
Martinelli - Chile, Ken Wilson, some rare ferns of Hawaii, while Jennifer Ide described a 
sample of the large range of varieties of British ferns in cultivation in Britain. Afterwards, 
members of the NFS provided a feast of home-made cakes and savouries. 
Nelson to Blenheim (Friday 18 February) 

To the left of one of the main gates of Queen's Park Gardens in Central Nelson is a large 
area reclaimed in recent years from a neglected area surrounding an old public toilet block. 
The overgrown, rank vegetation was removed with the volunteer help of prisoners from the 
local prison under the supervision of Edith Shaw. Only the healthy trees, inclu 
large sequoias, were retained. The soil was very poor and a huge effort 

bringing in ro irseneS for e P i P h y t< 


under Eaun s supervision, nu-.n^.- — 

New Zealand ferns; a vast project requiring many hundreds ot plants. N* 

,nd soil decomposition bacteria. Once ready to receive plants, again 
^ s supervision, members of the Nelson Fern Society planted the area with native 

th the ferns in magnificent condition, but the sad thing is that, 
wardens accessible to the publ.c anywhere, plants are frequently stolen and so relatively 
Species such as Anarthropteris lanceolate have 

c planting, wim iuc l«ub ... u-e»«»~- «~ 
like gardens accessible to the public anywhere, plants are i 
i re "species such as \mirth" w/is lanceolata, have h; 

s iletv since thev cannot be continually replaced. For the same reason, none of the plants 

are labelled We were delighted to be allowed to collect spores here. Some of us met 

d04 years, to be exact) Irene Thomas, the patron of the Nelson Fern Society. 

ng the fernery, some members took the opportunity to visit the garden of Joy 

ler long standing member of the tiding collection of 

ferns, while the rest spent more time in Queen's Park Gardens, admiring its many mature 
trees, native and otheru ise, its attracts e lake and noting the Boer War memorial. 
From Nelson we made our way to Pelorus Bridge Reserve in a limestone area about 
halfway between Nelson and Picton. After lunch we saw a grove ol~ very old and 
magnificent Dicksoma fibrosa famous for their multi-trunks, a phenomenon not usually 
associated w ith this species. We then crossed the road and, accompanied by members of the 
Nelson Fern Society, followed a circular track through typical lowland beech i \odu>fagus\ 
forest bisected by the Pelorus River. Here, for the first time for many days, it was dry 
underfoot and not raining overhead! Bright purple Dianella nigra berries, on their cotton- 
line stems amidst lily-like leaves, provided colour in the floor vegetation and Dacrydium 
cuprcssoides, rimu, much more common on the wet West Coast than in the drier areas of 
South Island, was obvious amongst the beeches by its drooping branches. Thirty-two 
pteridophytes were recorded in the reserve, most notable of which v\eie II h 
procerimi and B. viilcanii urn. Cyatlwa deulhaut. which had been notably absent on much 
of the west coast being a fern of drier areas, Diplazium australe found in the wetter areas, 
I.cptoptcris hvmenoplixiloides. Pellaea rotundijulia. P<d\sli< hum richurdii. Pteris treimda 
and Siichcrits cunninghamii. While most of us were still confused by the filmy ferns, seven 
were recorded, including Trichomanes venosum - there were some in the party who were 
becoming enviousK proficient in their identification! 

This was the last we would see of Edith and Pamela so we said our goodbyes and expressed 
very grateful thanks for all that they had done for us, over the last of the very welcome teas 
which they provided at the end of each day's fern hunting. They were certainly instrumental 
in making our 'paths plain' for us, ever ready to identify plants 'with reasons'. They also 
provided necessary background information about the general vegetation at each site. It 
would have been a much poorer excursion in South Island without them. Thank you very 
much for everything, Edith and Pam. 

Blenheim to Wellington (Saturday 19 February) [Paul Ripley] 

Saturday saw us make the short journey from Blenheim to Picton to catch the ferry to North 
Island. The ferry passes through long and picturesque sounds with onl\ a short open sea 
crossing. Some oi us were luck) enough to see dolphins leaping out of the water near the 
boat. Somewhat late due to the disorganisation of Budget Rental cars, we left Wellington, 
the capital of New Zealand but by no means its largest city, to travel the 60km or so up the 
Hutt valley to the Kaitoke reserve in the Kaitoke waterworks catchment area. Patrick 
Brownsey, the second migrant from Britain and co-author of our New Zealand fern 'bible', 
had had a long wait for us, but we were enormously grateful to him for sharing his 
knowledge of the area and his expertise on the flora. 

This was again volcanic country, well wooded with low hills and popular at weekends with 
Wellingtonians. We followed the , 
reservoirs, through quite < 
country. Blechnums (especially B. , 

certainty. The commc 

closely followed the 

species (11 Hymenophyllum and two Trichoma* 

trees and Patrick gave us a very useful tutorial 

filiforme, Grammitis billardierei and G cil 

eleagnifolia, Tmesipteris tannensis and Phymato 

afternoon's ferning, we made our wa\ slou 1\ up to the top again 
the changes in the forest with altitude. Again our thanks go i 
preparing this visit and for his freely-given advice and expertise i 

Wellington to Ohakune (Sunday 20 February) 

We spent the morning making t 

resort. At first the road followe 

climbed onto a pastoral lands 

Ruapehu dominated the view. ' 

hurry a few years pre\ iousK ). . 

adjacent hills. We drove up to l 

but although this barren moons 

only pteridophytes found. 

Further down, n« the W t 


In the evenina we were treated to a fascinating account by Viv Nicholls, a friend of Tim 

J ecolog} o\ the subantarctic islands south of New 
the Auckland Islands. Particular!} fascinating tor me 
)duced by the early settlers and the subsequent land 
reclamation. One of the drawbacks of our hectic schedule was the shortage of time 

however, and a profitable impromptu Hymenophyllwn workshop enhanced our knowledge 

of this very well-represented group. 

Ohakune to Rotorua (Monday 21 February) [Patrick Acock] 

With people making their own way on the long drive north, we arrived at Lake 
i described by Barbara Parris as the best 

short walk in New Zealand and so it proved to be, for ferns at least. Barbara's notes said 
that over 50 species had been recorded. One record card at least (Alison Paul's) records 49! 
As we set off up the wooded path to the lake it became obvious that we would see most of 
the ferns with which we had become familiar by just leaving the trail a few times, but we 
were quite keen to see the lake and knew we were more likely to see the new ferns on the 
list close to the lakeside. 

Around the lake we kept meeting each other, either by catching up the party in front or by 
meeting people going the other way around. Towards the end of the circuit I had my first 
piece of luck in coming across Botrychium biforme. It was unlike any Botrychium I had 
seen before and I was very pleased to have discovered it. When I met the anti-clockwise 
party, they had spotted it just ten yards along their trail! Other highlights were Lindsaea 
trichomanoides and pendant stems of Tmesipteris tannensis. I still found great joy in seeing 
areas of Sticherus cunninghamii and Trichomanes reniforme. Another delight was 
Phymatosorus novae -zelandiae, trailing out of the wood in straight lines down towards the 

; and had missed all the joys of the morning. She was, however, 
determined to see and photograph the Botrychium}. 

Car by car, we then made our way to Rotorua, most groups stopping by Lake Taupo for 
lunch and to see the spectacular view. 

Rotorua lies in one of the world's most active volcanic zones. We visited the most famous 
of the thermal reserves and Maori Centres, Whakarewarewa Thermal Reserve, on the 
southern edge of the city. There was a paucity of ferns compared to the sites we had visited 
so fai during the excursion, but 13 pteridophytes were recorded. New to our lists were 
GleidwnUi micmphylla. Hypolepis ambigua and Lycopodium cernuum. We were especially 

fascinated by the ferns tl 

wing epiphytically on the palms and tree-ferns on the 
i Village. Some of the group were pleased to have the opportunity tc 
it in a special kiwi house. 

Rotorua to Auckland (Tuesday 22 February) 

At the thermal r 

i yesterday, we had been fascinated by the different thermal activities, 
c-peaalh those of us who had not seen anything like it before. The famous Pohutu Geyser 
^part.cularU , P ectacular, shooting close to a height of 20 metres. Today we were to see 
vity and with it came unusual niches lor terns, which meant that 

really amazing thermal a 

c maae me sA< . rney to Waimangu Thermal Valley. The scenes were 

ely new thermal valley, created by the Tarawera eruption of 1886, 
whtch destroyed the glittering pink and white terraces made famous by colonial artists. First 
o greet our eyes was a volcanic crater full of boiling water. At the outflow the river kept a 
temperature of between 47-60°C. It was strange, to say the least, to put one's hand into a 
nver and have to withdraw it because of its heat! In the marsh) area away from the stream 
we Discovered Cyclosorus interrupts, only to be called back as we had walked past 
->e to see the stream, and then u,am ... sec a plant that many of us 
knew only from books, Schizaea fistulosa. A whole a, : cuted itself 

close by a bridge but I was worried that i warden was kccnim: 'his eve on us Later, 
however, Alan Ogden informed us that it was he who had been ludplul m'd pointed out all 
the rarer plant-. , M . ..,.,.,.„. .„.,,. „„,,-,,„■ -,1k i« look at terns. 

ueam rrom the boiling lake on whose bank it was gro 
i steaming stream sported a few specimens of Lastreop 
, whilst a Christella species, similar to. but smaller than 

and as yet unnamed, seemed to be 'enjoying' having its feet in the warm mud at the edge of 
the stream. The track through the reserve was estimated to take three-quarters of an hour to 
walk, but we had learnt early in the excursion to at least treble these time estimates. A 
shuttle bus ran through the reserve, and it was not surprising that most members had to take 
it back to the car park for their lunch, but not before many had lingered that little bit longer 
to see more fascinating sites down to where the river flowed into the lake. Sylvia was 
determined to have a boat ride on the lake, and, of course, Paul was determined to have his 

At the end of the track, as the terrain opened out into rough scrubland, the ever eagle-eyed 
Michel Boudrie was the first to observe a new member of the Gleicheniaceae for our 
records: Dicranopteris linearis. It was, of course, on the opposite bank of the stream, but 
Paul was insistent that we have a closer look at a specimen and paddled through the warm 
acidic cocktail of arsenic and molybdenum in his wellies. Close examination showed us the 
difference between this and the Gleichenia microphylla we had seen earlier. Michel had 
also spotted two aliens - Dryopteris fili.x-mas and Osmunda regalis - along the track. As 
we discussed this on the bus on the way back to the entrance, the driver o\ei heard us and 
commented that they had it in mind to weed them out. We were quite impressed that he 
should have such a good knowledge of the plants that he knew of these two among so 
many. The authorities are particularly sensitive to aliens in this region. 
We arrived back at the entrance, late, tired, but pleased with our finds. Some members of 
the party had found time to visit the Reserve shop and came away bearing treasures - tee- 
shirts and sweatshirts decorated with fern motifs. We now had a long drive to Auckland 
where many of us had a meal together in the motel. 

Auckland to Whangarei (Wednesday 23 February) [Graham Ackers] 

Auckland convincingly lived up to its 'city of sails' epithet during our excursion by hosting 
ata of New Zealand life for its duration. 

Adding to the excitement of course was New Zealand's convincing win short!) after the 
end of our trip. The city is surrounded by water, with the 'city of sails' referring in 
particular to the myriad of sailing boats in Waitemata Harbour. The other striking cit) 
landmark is the Skytower, which Lesley and I had ascended the previous evening, gaining 
impressive 360 degree views of the city and its surroundings. It is reputed to be the tallest 

building in the Soi 

The Skytower is clearly visible from the 'Auckland Domain'. Within this 80 hectare park- 
like terrain there are gardens, playing fields, glasshouses and the Auckland Museum. It was 
here that we met Ewen Cameron, who is the Curator of Botany. Ewen's is one of 11 
departments holding collections and the first brief stop of our visit was to the herbarium, 
which is housed using a compactor system. One box is allocated to each species and we 
viewed specimens of some of the New Zealand native ferns which we had come to know. 
Moving on to the Botany Department itself, we saw several members of staff busily 
databasing the collection. Laid out for our inspection on a large table was a wonderful 
collection of antique pressed fern books, from many sources and in many styles. The star of 
the collection was a beautifully bound example with wooden kauri covers inlaid with 
exquisite marquetry by Anton Seuffert. There were several of the pressed fern volumes 
produced by Eric Craig, a local carpenter who also ran Craig's Curiosity Shop from which 
he sold bound and unbound collections of pressed ferns (as well as other memorabilia). 1 
suspect many of us would have welcomed a longer stay in the presence of these wonderful 
books, but our schedule demanded a move to the Fernz Fernery. 
Within the Auckland Domain, 
glasshouses and garden; 

s constructed (in the open) c 

and extends from ground level down to two lower levels, all heavily shaded by a small area 
of native forest. Three different habitats were created - dry, intermediate, and wet. The 
plant list (available on entry to the fernery) gave an impressive 156 fern taxa. Inevitably, 
this was probably out of date - some of the labelling was a little suspect, and some 'weedy' 
ferns (Deparia sp. and Paesia scaberula) were having it their own way! Despite this, the 
fernery did contain some wonderful ferns, including Marattia salicina (not seen by us in 
the wild), all growing in a most evocative and thoughtfully constructed environment 
A few digressions from ferns were poss I 

being a performance by the Maori group Pounamu (Maori for 'jade'). For this we returned 
to the Museum, and were ceremoniously ushered into the small auditorium. For the next 45 
minutes the troupe gave us an emotionally charged performance of Maori heritage, 
demonstrating various war stances, rituals, songs, and games, including the well known 
haka dance, ti rakau (stick tossing) and poi (swirling flax net balls). 

Following some last looks around the Museum and purchases from the shop, we left 
Auckland around lunchtime, again heading north and arriving at Whangarei mid to late 
afternoon. Whangarei is the largest Northland town, and boasts(!) an oil refinery. 
Whangarei Harbour provided pleasant views from our next site, the Parahaki War 
Memorial, situated on a hill to the east of the town centre. Although time was restricted, we 
did manage to record 43 fern species here. This was surprising, as a previous list 
(admittedly 18 years old) gave only 19 ferns. The hill site consisted of regenerating forest, 
with various trails leading down the hill through the forest. Gleichenia microphxlla was 
present en masse in open areas. Although Sticherus auminghamii was also present, we 
gained our first sighting of the attractive S. flabellatus lower down the Ross Track. The site 
was productive for Lycopodium, with four species - L cernuum, L deuterodensum, 
L. fastigiatum and L. volubile. The climbing (and rather ueed\ I l.v^odiitm articulatum was 
noted scrambling over the bush. On a path bank we enjoyed our first sighting of the rare 
Loxsoma cunninghamii, a strange fern bearing a superficial resemblance to Histiopteris 
incisa, but having protruding marginal sori and tubular indusia. Filmy ferns were 
represented by five species of Hymenophyllum, and two Triclwmanes - our old favourite 
T. reniforme, as well as rather dusty specimens of T. elongatum. Particularly large 
specimens of Pneumatopteris pennigera were noted. The stalked Blechnum fraseri, a fern 
which we were to see increasingly in the north, was present. We saw the small Lindsaea 
tnchomanoides, but also the rarer L. linearis. Another rare find was Schizaea dichotoma, 
seen growing in somewhat dry heavy leaf litter. 

As with several of the sites we explored, a longer visit would have proved most rewarding, 
but the party's need for some relaxation after a long day triggered a move to our motel. 
Whangarei to Kerikeri (Thursday 24 February) 

We were to end this day in Kerikeri, some 65km (as the crow flies) due north of Whangarei. 
e route entailed a diversion via Dargaville through rolling farmland in an early 
" le us to spend the day exploring the Waipoua Forest on the 

of North Island was forest, 

exploiting the kauri for 

forests to about 4% of their original area. 

all now under the protection of the Department of Conservation. 

ighbouring forests of Mataraua and Waima, Waipoua constitutes the 

" this type of forest. Like a number of New Zealand endemics, 

start life as young trees bearing little resemblance to their adult 

spindly, with lanceolate leaves borne on branches extending the 

whole way up the trunk. After 50 or more years, the tree then sheds its lower branches. 

eventually to produce a massive straight trunk, devoid of any side branches, and an 

enormous crown. Kauri forests contain an abundance of other plants, including the large 

trees taraire (Beilschmiedia tarairi), kohekohe (Dyso.xyluni spectahih'). low at (Paratrophis 

banksii) and rata (Metrosideros robusta). Beneath the forest canopy, tall dense stands of 

kauri grass (Astelia trinervia) and mapere (Gahnia setifolia) are dominant. Also common 

are Mairehau (Phebalium nudum), hangehange (Geniostoma ligustrifolium). neinei 

(Dracophyllum latifolium), kiekie (Freycinetia banksii) and, of course, ferns. 

We met our guide, Barbara Parris, near the Waipoua Visitor Centre. As many will know, 

Barbara (who is English but grew up in New Zealand) is a pteridologist who spent much of 

her working life in Britain, but now lives back in New Zealand. She had recommended 

many of the sites that w 

Our first site was the short Rickers 

and petered out along a ridge. The r 

rare stand of Loxsoma cunninghamii, again noting the bngnt snvery colour on me unvei 

frond surface and the strange tiny sori. As usual, many other species were seen, most 

notable being Tmesipteris elongata, several small stands of Blechnumfraseri and straggling 

masses of Lygodium articulatum. 

The second site, involving a modest car journey, was a pilgrimage to view Tane Mahuta. 

the largest kauri tree still standing in New Zealand. Typically, kauris are 30m high, with a 

girth of 10m; Tane Mahuta is 51.5m high, with a girth of 13.8m, and is thought to be over 

2,000 years old. It was reached by a short boardwalk track, typical of the many excellent 

trails constructed by the Department of Conservation. Once again, 

even along such a short t 

s Dicksonia I 

The third site, a short d 

guard to prevent our cars being robbed! The forest entrance had apparently suffered I fire 
and this was reflected in the fern flora. Gleichenia dicarpa was abundant in this open 
habitat but there were also large stands of Pteridium esculentum and Blechnum novae- 
zelandiae. This latter fern is very common in New Zealand, and appears to tolerate a wide 
range of light levels, from open roadside banks (where its fronds hang down) to deep forest 
floor habitats (where the fronds tend to be erect and very large). One tree in this forest 
entrance area had a colony of the uncommon Hymenophyllum armstrongii, causing a 
cluster of party members to peer avidly at its diminutive fronds. This fern is uncommonly 
seen, being usually a high canopy epiphyte, but this stand was growing at head height It ts 
characterised by undivided or forked fronds, black midribs, black, spiny margins and large 
terminal sori. 

The coach road into the forest led to several tracks, two of which enabled visits to yet more 
impressive kauris - Matua Ngahere (the second largest living kauri) and the Four Sisters 
(four tall and graceful trees growing extremely closely together). Another track lead back to 
the Visitor 
forest form of Blechm 

e individuals having slender 

Taken as a whole, the three sites had similar fern floras. A total of 55 species were 

recorded, including four Asplenium, six Blechnum, four Cyathea, two Dicksonia, nine 

Hymenophyllum, two Lycopodium, all four Tmesipteris species and four Trichomanes, the 

ecords being for a single species per genus. One 'mystery' fem which is 

:r northern forests, is named Deparia petersenii in the 
; of the party felt that it did not resemble closely the 
vhich we are familiar. In fact the two forms have been 

rowing on dead stumps and fallen logs was particular!) 

Kerikeri (Friday 25 February) 

Having travelled to Kerikeri the previous afternoon, our first morning rendezvous with 
Barbara Parris and Jackie Davidson was a car park by the Kerikeri river, where we all 
dutifully posed for the group photograph (taken by Jackie with many cameras!). Fen the 
morning's excursion we walked the 3km Kerikeri Walkwaj path which runs alongside the 
Kerikeri river. This walk is highly scenic, with loveh river views and two impressive 
waterfalls - the first a short distance into the walk, and the second, the Rainbow Falls, at 
the end of the walk. The vegetation is secondary forest with a fairly open canopy, the 
ce being the totara (Podocamus m Vario hitats were present, 

on the path 

side ba 

nks, occ 


accompanied by 

nens of the tree 

enella were seen, 

ids. On the othe 

r hand, n 

lature tro 

nds ol'ano 

ther tree climbing 

vere present. As 

usual, hi 


were conn 

non, and possibly 

resembles B. chambersii, which was also present). Another interesting find was Doodia 
australis. This is similar to D. media, but was given separate species status by Barbara in 
1998 on account of slight morphological differences in the stipe and lamina. Grammitis 
ciliata was seen for the first time since 1995 (according to Barbara). Six species of 
Hymenophyllum were recorded, the site being particularly good for epiphytic ferns. Two 
species each of Lastreopsis and Phymatosorus were seen, lour species oi Trichomanes 
were recorded, one of which, T. endlicherianum was new to us, growing on damp rocks in 
a gully. Alison found a very small Trichomanes growing on a Dicksonia squarrosa trunk; 
subsequent investigations by Barbara revealed it to be a new addition to the New Zealand 

Two species we encountered, Nephrolepis cordifolia and Selaginclla 
widely distributed round the world and are considered in New Zealand to be weeds. The 
latter was certainly present in vast carpets along the banks. The Northland Regional Council 
encourages the destruction of such weeds, and publishes a ver) colourful and mlormame 
leaflet entitled 'Environmental Weeds - Delightful but Destructive- Mom of the Plains 
are flowering plants, including Tradesamtia fhanmensis, which was inflicting far more 
'environmental pain' along the Kerikeri Walkway than was Selaginella. So much so. in 
fact, that Barbara had come armed with plastic bags into which we disposed of as much 
Tradescantia as was practical during such a walk! 

Not all members of the party reached the Rainbow Falls, as some members turned back to 
provide a car ferrying service from the Falls back to the car park. The Falls are within a 
small area designated as the Rainbow Falls Scenic Reserve. The most notable ferns seen at 
this end of the walk were large stands of Sticherus flabeilatus and one specimen of 
Diplazium australe. The total fern species count for the Kerikeri Walkway was 45. 
Following a pleasant lunch in the nearby Butlers cafe, we drove to the southern end of 
Kerikeri to visit the Kohukohu Nurseries. This is another nursery specialising in New 
Zealand natives (although we were welcomed by a bed of impressive and colourful 
Hibiscus cultivars!) Our hosts were owner Tom Lindesay, and fern grower Jackie Davidson. 
Jackie initiated the propagation of fems in the nursery, and (apart from Barbara Pains) is 
the only person in the area growing from spores. Barbara has provided assistance and 
guidance in the enterprise, particularly in the naming of the ferns. The fern stock is housed 
in a large shade-house, and consists of an impressive number of well grown species (their 
current catalogue lists 39). There was also an area set aside within the shade-house for 
mother plants, and for Jackie's own personal collection which included some non-native 
tern, such as Woodwardia orientalis. The party were able to exchange experiences on 
propagation and cultivation with Jackie and Tom, hopefully to the mutual benefit of both 
factions' Our hosts made us feel most welcome, and it was a matter of considerable regret 

2 to effect any purchases. Had v 
high quality and variety, I expect most members o 
armfuls of plants! 

i end of Kerikeri. 

Our next stop was Barbara Parris' garden. Barbara lives tows 
on a small valley side. Both the house and location are most impressive, with lovely views 
over the Kerikeri Inlet and valley. The garden is large, consisting of lawns, sunny and shady 
beds a large stand of recently planted trees, and some wild bush. In the beds, Barbara 
grows a variety of ferns from various parts of the world and has also an impressive 
; in pots. The garden is adjacent to the shore, and we walked this short 
'pressive stand of Pyrrosia eleagnifolia growing on a lemon tree, to see 
resinifera) literally at the bottom of the garden! Over 
vas a very hot day) Jennifer thanked Barbara for her 
all her help with our excursion. 


Our final activity as a group was to 
have an excellent dinner together at 
the Kina Kitchen in Kerikeri, and 
we were pleased to have the 
opportunity to play host to Barbara 
and her husband Esmond. Towards 
the end of the meal, Alastair 
Wardlaw proposed formal thanks 

presented her with 

present from us all. 

Barbara Parris' Garden. 

e Wardlaw, Jacques Homes, 
hel Boudrie, Esther Balasse, 

I Ke.^ 

i impressions of the excursion, but r 

Time to disperse - and impressions (Saturday 26 February) 

Rather sadly, after such an enjoyable fortnight, we all dispersed, 
heading home, others staying on in New Zealand. 
Everyone will have taken away with them n 
few that I found striking: 

• Despite the relatively large number of species, most of the party got to grips with the 
identification of the ferns quite quickly. The one possible exception to this was the filmy 

• Tree-ferns seemed to be everywhere! 

• Introduced plants were evident nearly everywhere outside the unspoilt forests, and are 
clearly a significant problem in the New Zealand flora. If anything, introduced animals 
were even more of a problem. 

• The Westland rain forests must be amongst the most beautiful places on the world. 

• Rain almost literally wiped out our second full day's ferning (Arthur's Pass), and 
persisted somewhat in Westland. In contrast, some days in the north were very hot 

I he amount of travelling, and staying in a different motel every night, became quite 
tang. On the other hand, it provided the ideal way of seeing as much of New Zealand as 
possible in a two-week period, which was of particular value to those of us for whom 

• New Zealand's small population (3.5 million in a country only 10% larger than the UK) 
results in many parts of the country being very quiet indeed, contrasting markedly (and 
very pleasantly) with our over-populated European countries. 

* ?t! UrrenCy exchan S e rate w as very favourable to UK (and other) visitors, and helped 
i bounds. (Speaking of currency, ferns feature 

CHESHIRE & CLWYD - 9-1 1 June Graham Ackers 

The centre for this meeting was the picturesque Cheshire village of Farndon. Sonic ol the 
1 1 party members stayed in the comfortable accommodation provided by the Farndon Anns 
and Greyhound Inn, whilst others made alternative arrangements. 

On Saturday morning the drive to the first site took us across the I nglish Welsh bordet: the 
River Dee at the Farndon village boundary Having skirted Wrexham, the route became 
highly scenic, taking us past a lovely wet meadow full ol large eolourlul clumps ol ragged 
robin and buttercups. We then ascended to the plateau summit ol Lghwseg Mountain. 
driving across open heathland, with heather, hilbern and bracken, further splashes ol less 
welcome colour were afforded by scattered bushes ol Rhod.nhndnm pomnmn agg. We 
parked and met other party members near Worlds Hnd (33/231483). The da\ started cool 
and breezy, but sunshine soon provided welcome warmth. 

valley bottom, with small specimens oi i>. 
on shady outcrops on the valley's south side 

woodland ferns present were Athyrium filix- 

Offa's Dyke path. Ferns observed en ro 

valleVand harboured -ood tern communities. This is the only part of North Wales 
]ptvris suhimmnoui is currenth known, and numerous plants were found 

;ns .een on the scree, but not so large as some gryke dwelling 

specimens occurring at Pennine sites. Accompanying ferns amongst the boulders were 
Cystopteris fra% \m robertianum, Asplenium trichomanes subsp. 

quadrivalens, A. ruta-muraria and a few small plants of A. scolopendrium. 

In the afternoon, we returned to the cars via a higher path that initially follows the cliff 
base, then runs along the cliff tops, finally rounding the top of the Worlds End valley. This 
walk, the only serious piece of exercise during the day, was most exhilarating, and afforded 
splendid views of the valley and hills to the west. 

We then drove to Llangollen, a picturesque, if touristy, town to the south of Eglwyseg 
Mountain. Afternoon tea was taken to the accompaniment of the sights and sounds of the 
Llangollen Railway, a heritage steam railway that started operations in 1981. The tea-rooms 
were beside the Llangollen arm of the Shropshire Union Canal, and we had a most pleasant 
stroll along the canal to the east. The main purpose of this activity was to attempt to re-find 
Osmunda regalis, previously recorded along the canal banks. Unfortunately, Osmunda was 
not found, but ferns observed (on the canal sides and in the canal walls) were Athyriwn 
filix-femina, Dryopteris dilatata, D.fdix-mas, Blechnum spicant, Polystichum aculeatum, 
Asplenium scolopendrium and Equisetum arvense. Also seen were Polypodium sp. and 
Dryopteris affinis agg. but being on the opposite bank of the canal, it was not possible to 
ascertain the species or subspecies respectively. 

On the return car journey to Farndon, some of the party made a small detour to view, and 
walk across, the impressive Pont Cysyllte aqueduct further along the canal. This completed 
our industrial archaeology studies for the weekend! That evening, most of the party 
assembled for dinner at the Farndon Arms, where good company and tasty and unusual 
food (e.g. ostrich steaks) made for a most enjoyable evening. 

On Sunday morning, we drove a few miles east from Farndon to the hamlet of Fullers 
Moor. The area explored from there was Bickerton Hill, a National Trust property, being 
the most southerly hill of a Cheshire chain running north to Frodsham. This chain 
constitutes a ridge of red sandstone, used for local buildings. We climbed along the side of 
the hdl through dense bracken, observing occasional stands of Dryopteris dilatata in areas 
slightly too heavily shaded for the bracken to grow. Single specimens of D. dilatata also 
occurred amongst the bracken, but were less easy to spot. Our route took us up and down 
the hill a couple of times. At the high vantage-points, we had excellent views ranging from 
the Welsh hills to Chester and Liverpool. 

At one point, near the top of the hill, we encountered an area of sandstone cliffs, outcrops 
and caves (33/503536) which proved to be the most productive for ferns. Forest ferns here 
were Athyrium fdix-femina, Dryopteris fdix-mas, D. affinis subsp. borreri, and Blechnum 
spicant. Three rock ferns were seen on the sandstone: Polypodium vulgare occurred as a 
large expanse colonising an inclined mossy sandstone outcrop adjacent to a large cave, a 
single plant of Asplenium adiantum-nigrum was seen on the cliff just above head height, 
but most interesting were the several plants of Asplenium trichomanes subsp. pachyrachis, 
some partly hidden by other vegetation. All displayed the typical habit - fronds appressed 
to the substrate, and pronounced pinna lobing. The variability in this lobing was discussed, 
being illustrated by drawings in the soil by one member of the party! Sandstone is often 
assumed to be acidic, thus the presence of this calcicolous plant seemed surprising. 
However, sandstone can have a calcareous matrix; alternatively, there can be mineral-rich 
veins in an otherwise acidic rock. 

More excellent views, over the Cheshire plain, were enjoyed from our Sunday lunch venue, 
the Pheasant Inn at Higher Budwardsley. The weather, overcast and mild, was just warm 
enough for us to sit outside! 

After lunch, en route to Chester, we stopped to observe sonic fine specimens a( Mplcniiim 
adiantum-nigrum on a roadside wall near Tattenhall (33/497567). Then came the tourist) 
bit! On arrival in Chester, we hired one rowing boat and one motor boa! to sail up the Ri\er 
Dee. The motor boat hardly deserved the name, being grossly under-powered, and ha re I \ 
making headway against the current. The rowing boat, on the other hand, powered by a 

contact with some slightly larger river cruise boats! Our destination was a rather derelict 
landing stage, where the river wall was adorned with curtains ot Adiantum capiUns-u-iwns 
(33/418663). This was very strange and unusual and we could onl\ speculate on then mode 
of arrival. The plants seemed to be flourishing and gave the appearance of having been 

Having returned the boats safely (surprisingly!), we took tea, then went our separate ways. 
All agreed that the weekend had been highly enjoyable, with good ferns, good company, 
excellent scenery and kind weather. For this, no small thanks are due to Paul Ripley, whose 
local knowledge and diligent research guaranteed a splendid field meeting. 


Thirteen of us gathered from all corners of Circa! Britain, and ihe ISA. for dinner at The 
Saddle Hotel. Alnmouth with our leader. Roh Cooke, and lo discuss plans for the 
weekend's fieldwork. We were pleased to meet three newer members who had been enticed 
out as well as Casey Vickers, a medical student from the USA who had been working on 
Dryopteris at The Natural History Museum 

xploring the wooded area above the River Coquet to the west 

igrum. In a wet flush in the woodlands we saw both Equisetum 
ateia. E. arvense and Pteridium aquilinum were also recorded, but 

/ hyemale (h\ the riven and Hoirwhitim htiuirut (on the hill above 

i</<tii> tm turd n!/ chmttcut Ihe/ aircine plants were 

:re we found what we had conic to see abundant lar-c plants ,,f \spU-nitun murinum. 

r dinner. Adrian Dyer lingered for a cup of tea and on the dry-stone wall of the car park 

change ol plan on Sunday saw us travelling to Bellingham to seek out Asplenium 

■ turned out to be one of those rare fascinatm- lenn habitats where turn by 
11 thc liNt o| s P^'>es grows m size and delightfulness. We started b\ observing Asplenium 
hoimmcs subsp. quadrivalcns on building and walls as ue approached the burn. Then 
SaW {h °P terii Mix-mas, D. dilatata and D. ajfinis subsp. barren, Athyrium fdix- 

•itlaare was spotted on the oaks and then Asplenium 

•wing so close together in - 

from Alnwick Station, j 

pteridch.gist into the stream to collect a tew splecnv. 

to be treated to tea and cakes by Mary Gihhy 

We are grateful to Rob for organising a great weeken 


On Saturday 19th August, 18 members and friends gathered in the car park at the Wvndham 
Arms, Clearwell, where the first task was to collect the orders for lunch. We were also 
given an early taste of what turned out to be a meeting of surprises when Jonathan ("roue 
announced that he had found 'pachyrachis (we subsequently decided that we should 
probably be using the name Uplcnimn csikii) in Clearwell the previous evening. This 
particularly pleased Mark and Clare Kitchen, who are the Vice-County Recorders and 
previously only knew of one site in the county. 

Our first site was the old railway line and quarries between Upper Soudley and Ruspidge. I 
had collected many Carboniferous fossil plants in this area, but that was over 30 years ago. 
What I did know was that there were pleim of modem terns to be seen. Of these, the 
Cvstopieris fragilis, which is uncommon in this area, was perhaps the best find, and the 
Pohpodmm the most puzzling. At the time it seemed likely that this was P. cainbriaon 
because o( the shape oi the teeth on the fronds, and because they were such young fronds. 
Mark was going to return and check when the spores are ripe. However, after the meeting 

similarly toothed and all of which were equally immature. I also checked my own plants 
when I returned home, and found that the P. cainbriaon. even in late August, was still only 
just unfurling, while both my P. vulgore and P. interjection were producing a lot of toothed 
and lobed fronds this year. My view is that this will turn out to be P. interjection. 
The fossil hunt in the large quarry just south of Ruspidge was. frankly, disappointing. W e 
only found a few fragments of some clubmosses. The spoil heaps by the road were better, 
although I annoyed a lot of ants when I turned over an impressive lump of Sigillaria (the 
bark of a particularly large clubmoss). We largeK followed the road back to Upper Soudley. 
detouring into a couple of small freemines where the spoil heaps were \er> overgrown, and 
Stopping to admire an old bell pit which would have been a primitive iron-ore mine. The 
Forest of Dean is littered with small mines because of an ancient practice whereb) a man 
born locally and who has worked in a mine for a year and a day can apply to the Gavel ler at 
Coleford to start his own mine. 

After an excellent lunch in the White Horse. Upper Soudley (which appears to be the old 
railwaj station), we set off for Cannop ponds. We stopped briefly at Blackpool Bridge 
1 32/653089), partly to admire the many ferns on the railway bridge nearby, and partly to see 
the Dryopteris carthusiana which grows abundantly by the stream. 

decided to walk a short distance by the road before heading up the hill. Not only did we 
stumble on a brilliant site with three horsetails including E. sylvaticwn. we also found large 
and abundant plants of Oreoptens Umbosperma, which was supposed to be one of the 
attractions of climbing the hill! The route up to the old quarry is complicated, and on the 
way I spotted a plantV Asplcnmm tuliiuuwn-nigntm growing, somewhat untypically. on 
the ground near another recently disused freemine. 

At the top I was somewhat concerned to discover that the large quarry is no longer disused 
and the paths have moved. However, we found the old tramway and made our way down 
Bix Slade. with some rather brief forays into the undergrowth. Not surprisingly these did 
not yield any trace of the (Jymnocarpimn dryopteris for which there are some old and rather 
vague records (it is still known further north, in Wimberry Slade). However, the very 
luxuriant common ferns were much admired, the record being a frond of Dryopteris affinis 
siihsp .ifthiis over six feet long! 

After a very strenuous day some of the party were dead on their feet but several of us 
visited Jonathan's new site for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. pcu-hvrachis i.\. < sikii) 
(32/578081). It was both abundant and (for such a small fern) luxuriant, and very 
conveniently chose to grow next to some A. trichomanes subsp. quad rival ens just to 
illustrate the differences. Curiously, at all the sites I know, the rock on which it grows has a 
significant iron content. 

The next day we met up at Symonds Yat (32/564157) (the small car park, not the touristy 
one), my original intention being to march the party all the way to Biblins Rocks to see the 
A. trichomanes subsp. pachyrachis. However, I was assured that we could find it on the 
Gloucestershire side of the river. Much of the rock here is neutral to slightly alkaline, and 
the A. scolopendrium is particularly large and impressive on the alkaline bits (the Pteridium 
ayuilimim is larger, but less impressive, on the neutral to acid bits!). Mark Kitchen was the 
first to spot some Asplenium adiantum-nigrum on the way down. I was surprised to find 
some Gymnocarpium robertianum, which confirmed the rediscovery of an old record a few 

We searched the heavily wooded cliffs near the suspensio 

eventually found that the A. trichomanes subsp. pachyrachis t 

though it is never common. The walk back up the r 

half the party discovered a short cut back to the cars, while th 

Forest of Dean. 

hIwI^t"' S P u riCe ' DerCk DlXOn < Peter Hindle > Ele *nor ha, 

Howard & Tina Matthews, Pat Acock, Mark Kitchen, Keith Holly 

Doreen Holly, Andy Martin, Christine Mullins. 


The afternoon visit was to Cadora Wood in the Wye Valley. This w; 
until about 30 years ago, when much of it was felled and replanted \ 
acquired in 1999 by the Woodland Trust, who are intending to try ; 
arranged to check out what remained of the original rich fern flora, 
long hard walk up Coxbury Lane from Redbrook (32/537095), so son 
to relax by the river and others only got as far as Causeway Grove, wl 
woodland. Curiously, those of us who reached Cadora Wood (enti 
found more different ferns, as there was a good patch o( Dryopteris 
path. Under the worst of the coniferous plantings there were no ferns, 1 
evidence of what it all used to be like and some of the plants had eno 
and must be a considerable age. There were also masses of young s 
different species, which bodes well for the future. We left Mark anc 
searching the wood, while most of the rest of us sampled the tea and c 
after bidding farewell to Marti and Andy Martin, who had a long drive 
BPS field trip. 

Pteridophytes recorded during Forest of Dean Meeting 











Equisetum arvense 


E. fluviatile 


E. sylvaticum 


Polypodium interjectum 





Pteridium aquilinum 






Oreopteris limbosperma 


Asplenium adiantum-nigrum 



A ceterach 




A. ruta-muraria 





A scolopendrium 







A trichomanes subsp. pachyrachis 



A trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens 






Athyrium filix-femina 






Gymnocarpium robertianum 






P. setiferum 




Dryopteris affinis agg. 


D. affinis subsp. affinis 




D. affinis subsp. borreri 




D carthusiana 




D. dilatata 






D. filix-mas 







Blechnum spicant 







Martin Rickard 

Once again our hard working Meetings Subcommittee had come up with a successful day's 
programme. I am sure that the two dozen members who attended all found this a very 
enjoyable and informative meeting. 

First to speak was Sylvia Martinelli, who set about defining her concept of just what 
constitutes a xerophytic fern with a speedy tour of the drier parts of the world. I think the 
conclusion was to include an\ species which has the abilit\ to restrict water loss and/or be 
able to store water. Of course, as with all things, it is a matter of degree. Sylvia illustrated 
her talk with her own photographs which included many species which I for one have never 
seen in the wild. Good examples were from Hawaii (Nephrolepis sp., Pityrogramma 
rulomchmos). California iPcllaca hrachyptcra. Chedanthes siliquosa and Pentogramma 
others), New Mexico {Notholaena fendleri). South Africa 
rliilen.u.s. A. gertrudis, A. sulphureum, Polystichum 
sneherus sp.). I think the general consensus was that Polystichum andinum was 
the most desirable! Many of us were somewhat jealous of all the travelling Sylvia has done; 
she certainly whetted my appetite to see for myself some of these wonderful ferns, 
particularly in South America. A BPS trip there would be wonderful and I think, with luck, 
*e may be able to get somethmg organised in a few years time once the dust from the New 
Zealand tnp has settled. Chile might be more expensive but maybe ...! 
Before lunch Alison Paul described the principal xerophytic ferns from Europe. All are in 

ti TT^t S° im that h3d 6SCaped "* notice - ■ had earber bee " sur P" sed when 
Sylvia had described the three adiantums from Chile as xerophytes but here was Alison 
reintorcing the link! In Europe we have Notholaena marantae, Cosentinia vellea and seven of Chedanthes. With the aid of photographs and other illustrations. Alison caretulh 
Zt.H '" t araCteiiStiCS ' rdnf0rCed with a ** *»» from the 

follow!: "" m herbanUm ' In Sh ° rt th£ P rinC1 P al -eful characters are as 

Col°JT\ haS a denSdy SCaIy undersu ^ce, the scales protecting the sporangia. 
as a very woolly indumentum protecting the sporangia. Chedanthes has 
ma fT , P T, Cted ^ a P seudoind ---, in effect the underturned and moddled 

de lined b ^ *** * ^^ ta ^ ™rphology, the species are best 

clThll 'h "TT* ^ P seudoind — ™ and mdument with a hand lens. In 
^^^ d0mda&iUm 1S ™* br ° ad and «»— -und the linear segments 

V frintd In ; h acwstlca lt 1S irregular, y lobed with a fimbriate mar § in - In c timei il 

there are short red glandular hairs on the underside of the frond, whereas 

- ~ ~" ~ "*^ -«"ll ICU gl 

C hispamca has abundant long red 

ilticellular hairs ; 

n with rounded entire lobes. In C. guanchica it is broader, 
Ion* tanpleH h Jc' ma f erensis and C - pulchella. In C. persica it is fringed with very 
St^dS ° f thCSe SpedeS are a,lotet -ploids derived from hybrids 

I Z Ts not entl SP A T ieS ' T* ** ^^ betWeen s P ecies can be rather c ^ 
anothe Tl n f ' !*T ^ P ° inted OUt that ™"y of the species hybridise with one 
lple's'onheT Cal ,demificatl0n «*■ followed for those who wished to look at 
prodded CT SP T ^ aid ° f 3 miCr ° SC °P e and VarioUS *** that AHS ° n ^ 

< h "^^ a * — °< *** 

Our first speaker after lunch was Boh Chmmvk. an unci naiional pterulolo^ieal celebrity, 
who is also currently the ABLO (Australian Botanical I uuson ( )t'ficci > based at Kew. I say 
celebrity because anyone who has co-written a hook on New Zealand terns is a star in my 
book! The book in question being Ferns and Fern Allies of Sew Zealand by Heath ami 
Chinnock published in 1974. As the title ABLO suggests. Boh is now permanently based in 
Australia where he has recently made a very significant contribution to the Flora of 
Australia, Volume 48, Ferns, Gymnosperms and Allied Groups (1WK). Plates drawn for 
this major work were used to illustrate his talk. Boh followed on the theme started by 
Sylvia in the morning by running through the xerophytic terns oi Australia except that he 
virtually ignored Cheilanthes\ Using a detiiution ol xcrophyte similar to Syhia's. Boh 
described the : at least partly xerophytic in Australia: Isoeles one 

species grows on top of Ayers Rock!. Pleurosoru\. Cln ihmtln v. Paraeeieraeh. Mitrsilea. 
Ophioglossum, Adiantum, Pteris, Psilotum, Xephrolepis. Doodia. Lindsaea. Dieranopteris. 
Lycopodiwn, Schizaea, Actiniopteris. /7n7/<>e/<'N\«//i. l.\^i>diinn. Plat\:nma. Aspleniiim. 
Microsorum, Drynaria and e\en fl\men<>ph\llnm'. A thought pnwokuiL: list with many 
genera so different in character from the average pteridologist's idea oi" a xerophytic fern. 
The day was wound up by an informal session where Clue Brotherton answered questions 
on the cultivation of xerophytic ferns. Clive, and his wife Doreen. are stalwarts of the 
Midlands Regional Group but they rarely have time to participate in the more distant 
national meetings (including those in London). Within the West Midlands, however, 
Clive' s skill in cultivating these ferns is almost legendary. He grows a very wide range of 
xerophytic ferns, mostly in his greenhouse but five or six species do well in his garden 
which is almost entirely laid down to gravel! I attempted to chair this session but such was 
the interest from the floor that I was largely superfluous. The questions kept coming thick 
and fast and Clive' s answers were always carefully considered. Topics covered included 
compost, watering, temperature, pests, compost sterilisation, spore cleaning and 
propagation from spores, as well as cultivation out of doors, in an alpine house and in a 
greenhouse. The liveliness of this session was adequate proof of the suitability of this 

away with a much better idea of what we were doing wrong! 

In conclusion, I would like to record my thanks to all the participants a 

Graham Ackers, who conceived the idea for the meeting 

into taking part. He was ably supported by the staff at the Museum, it 

Paul and Mary Gibby. Our sincere thanks to all three of you. 

This was not entirely an 'indoor' meeting, because the Chelsea Physic Garden < 
provided the opportunity for bouts of fresh air between proceedings. Indeed, the garde, 
looking particularly fine with its spring blooms and blossoms. Dodging the shower 
sunny spells allowed us to see the colourful winter Woodland Garden, the Garden's 
visiting marsh marigold (Caltha palustris) flowers in the pond, masses of white berg 
the impressively statuesque self-seeding Echium pininana from the Canary Island 
foxglove tree {Paulownia tomentosa) in flower, and the Judas tree (Cercis s 
about to flower. The New Zealand theme of this meeting was 'supported' by seeing the 
collection of New Zealand medicinal plants, including Phormium sp. and a fuchsia tree 
(Fuchsia e 

started with a series of illustrated talks presented by some of those who 
Society's New Zealand excursion in February. Alastair Wardlaw's introduction 
by showing the route taken by the party. Alastair went on to describe the 

context of the excursion in terms of the size and population of New Zealand, its geology. 
geographical location, and extent of its fern flora. The first full three days (Saturday to 
Monday) of the excursion itself v. ere then described, from the searing heat and hot rocks 
ferns of Christchurch's Port Hills area, to the drenching rain in Arthur's Pass, and ending in 
the wonderful rainforest habitats of the Hokitika area in the west of South Island. 
Sylvia Martinelli, assisted by Alan Ogden, then went on to present an account of the next 
four days. Tuesday saw the party at Fox Glacier, doing some 'touristy' things, but 
significantly exploring the amazingly ferny rainforest along the Minnehaha track On 
Wednesday the party returned north, passing back through Hokitika. exploring some coastal 
fern locations en route, and terminating at Westport. Thursday's destination was Nelson. 
where a couple of fascinating fern gardens were visited, together with a native fern nurserx. 
Ihai evening, excursion members were the guests of the Nelson Fern Society. Fnda\ saw 
the party travelling to Blenheim, en route visiting a fern) nature reserve at Pelorus Bridge. 
e next 'leg'. On the Saturday the party 
vere accompanied by Patrick Biounsex 
- ex,Mo,e a wooay waterworks reserve 40km north of Wellington. The party stayed in 
den moved on to Okahune in the Tongariro National Park, where 
mountain flora was observed along various Hacks and alpine meadows. On Monday the 
route taken was from Ohakune to Rotorua, famous for its hot springs and thermal lakes. On 
1 uesday morni i . , . , n u as vjsited before thg mQved off tQ 


The final 'leg' was described by Graham Ackers. On Wednesday morning the Auckland 
domain was visited to see the Auckland Museum's collection of antique Now Zealand fern 
° kv th0 terner y and a Performance of Maori culture and son.. Around lunchtime the 
party set off for Whangarei, where the wooded hill site oi Mount Parahaki was explored. 
°a i . x^ my aCUVlty °" Thursda y was s P e nt in the company of Barbara Parris at the 
wonderful Waipoua Forest, vv,th its untouched kauri trees and associated vegetation. By 
; a ; !> - lhe Pa,1> had amved M ^ final destination ol Kenken. u here the Kerikeri 
WaJkway » as explored for ferns. In the afternoon, a local native plant and fern nursery and 
Barbara Parris house were visited. Excursion members dispersed on the Saturday. 
The overall impression gleaned from these presentations 

n ,«m,n;^ 1_. ■ . .- -. 

__,.._„«„„ 5 ^a.i tu iiuni mese 
enjoyable tnp, organised superbly by Jennifer Ide. A much 

appears elsewhere in 

fuller account of this excursion 

Next on the agenda was a short presentation from Mary Gibby on the history of the Chelsea 
Phystc Garden^ Naturally, the history of any institution ,s an amalgamate of S* 
personalities who have helped to create it. The Garden was conceived by the Society of 
Apothecaries m .673. After some difficult earl f the gardens 

sjsed by a visit from the then well known Professor of Botany at Leiden 
who V bn lty H t I" 1 ^ mann - H ° WeVer ' the most infl - Sir Hans S.oane. 

who bought the Manor of Chelsea in 17.2, and ten years later leased the grounds to the 

gard n S^o" " ^T^ Pr ° Viding * ™ a,W ^ S Used as a P ^" c < or noW a B ° taniC) 
garden. Sloane was also instrumental in securim- M Philip Miller as 

^Z^^T * *""«*" ** *"— ° f the S d -g his 48 year tenure. 
S nm.I. k I uf' , nnaeus vlslted *e gardens. In 1772. Sir Joseph Banks brought back 
is Toulht i k u fr ° m ICdand ' and P resentL - d *" to "- -ider. to construct una. 

cntZt 2 £arlieSt r ° Ck garden in the «*** Hris is m a hsted structure, 

Sr'f?? renOVati ° n - 0thCrS — '"- 1 *"" ^ - d ^ — ' W,lliam CUlliS 

^^M^e^L^^^ (0f *— -" fam£) ' 

In present times, the main use of the garden remains botanical, and this is supported by the 
order beds and many other fine features. Currently there is significant fern interest, and the 
four main fern collections were visited. Within the unhealed fern h°use ' s the collection of 
Macaronesian ferns. Also within the fern house is a famous Warden ease, containing the 
seemingly rampant I'hcliomancs sy>iv/< >\uw and a couple ol specimens of l.i'pinpii-ris 
superba - the Prince of Wales Feathers fern (seen during the New Zealand excursion ,n its 
native rainforest habitat). Just outside the fern house is Mary Gibb> s Dryoptcri.s collection. 
with some impressive (and rare) species and hybrids from M iU -'aronesia. Europe and 
elsewhere. Naturally, this collection will become more attractive as the new season's fronds 
unfurl. Johannes Vogel has a large Asplenium collection to support his research actujties. 
This is located next to the main buildings, as is the recently acquired collection of 
Doryopteris. Not being hardy, these ferns are housed in the Natural Historv Museums 
glasshouse. The collection is being built up by JovitaC'islmski Yc^Mui. a research student 
from Brazil, who is preparing a thesis on the genus. They are a particular!) attract iu- group 
of plants, which horticulturally should be treated as semi-xerophytic' There remain a 
number of scientific puzzles to unravel, principally the delineation ol tlic genus, its species, 
and their problematical hybrids. One point of particular interest wi is that the niorpho| n g> ol 
sporelings may, in some cases, prove more helpful for species sep ant iion than the tull> 
grown sporophytes. Thanks are due to Jovita and the other collection owners for 
interpreting their collections for us. 

This garden session merged with the lunch hour, after which the Society held its Annual 
General Meeting. Minutes of the AGM appear elsewhere in this issue, however, I would 
make the personal observation that recent AGMs have been both enjoyable and 
informative, with the various reports being presented briefly and professionally. In no way 
are they the ordeal that some might imagine and I would encourage as many members as 
possible to attend in future years! 

After the AGM, Graham Ackers ran a short forum for new menders to help explain the 
workings of the Society and how to get the most out of it. 

Throughout the meeting, book sales were (as usual) ably run by S*ev e a nd Karen Munyard 
and similarly, merchandise sales by Mick and Linda Craddock- Gerry Downey kindly 
volunteered to run the plant sales (which netted a welcome £43). To support the theme of 
the meeting, Martin Rickard brought along some of his own antique New Zealand books, 
including superb examples of pressed fern books with their wooden bindings by Anton 
Seuffert and Eric Craig. We also had a preview of Martin's new b ook. The Plantfinder's 
Guide to Hardy Ferns, due for publication the following month. 

The meeting closed an hour or so after the AGM, members having indulged in tea and 
cakes and (hopefully!) enjoyable social discourse. 

Twenty-five members were greet 

to wear which entitled those who 

We set off for the outside fern borders at the end of the Order Beds. Here we were able to 

acquaint some of the newer members with a few of the more common British ferns and 

varieties as well as some of the more commonly planted foreign h^y plants. Ferns of note 

included Osmunda regalis, Onoclea sensibilis, Polypodium % shiviisiae. Pohstichum 

aculeatum and Phegopteris connectilis. Ophioglossum vulgatun* Was spotted i 

ihow this species to tho Se n ot so fa 
i through 'the Rockery where we observed a few remnants of the fern flora 

of an earlier age, a few tasselled lady ferns and hart's tongues as well as a small colony of 
Cystopteris fragilis. At the Alpine House we saw a few hardy ferns inside before moving 
around the sides and back where a few favourites lie. These included Polypodium scouleri, 
Adiantum pedatum, Cystopteris dickieana and Asplenium ruta-muraria. 
Before we broke for lunch we went into the Princess of Wales Conservatory and looked at 
the Adiantum species and cultivars downstairs. On going into the more tropical sections we 
admired the various ferns and tried to come to grips with the families we had met in our 
different experiences. The section with the rock wall is still predominantly empty and we 
look forward to the time when it is restored to its former glory. 

Over lunch we got to know some of the newer members and then we reassembled at the 
Filmy Fern House. With some of the party recently back from New Zealand, the house took 
on a new dimension and we were able to look out for some of the plants we had admired on 
our travels. Care will need to be exercised in the management of this house as many of its 
bygone treasures have already gone and others look as though they will be soon inundated 
by more weedy growth. 

Outside, at the back of the Filmy Fern House, we looked at the rearranged ferns donated at 
■ ~ r > u i Society's centenary. The plants that are left are growing reasonably well. 

the opportunity to leave at this point but a few hardy ( 
: ferns in the Palm House. We then called in at the bool 


On a fine spring day fifteen members met Mike Grant, one of the Wisley botanists who has 
a special interest in ferns. After an initial talk by Mike we set off for the ferny areas below 
the rockery, stopping off on the way to admire a few Polystichum cultivars, P. andersonii 
and Pseudophegopteris levingei. 

In the lightly wooded lower area the ferns were well laid out and we were able to show our 
newer members some of the British native plants and contrast these with foreign ferns and 
British varieties. Growing in the water we were able to see a number of majestic Osmunda 

Ascending the Rockery we were shown another area set out mainly with native ferns but 
also with a few hardy foreign favourites. Higher up the Rockery one group discovered a 
few lemnamc of Pseudophegopteris levingei which may still have its revenge and 
recolonise its former haunt. A little further along we discovered Asplenium trichomanes 
and A. ceterach growing in a rock wall. In the wall supporting the Alpine House bank we 
observed a few more ferns including Cyrtomium fortunei. In the Alpine House there were 
only four ferns including the delicate little Pteris gallinipes, Cheilanthes maderensis and 
Dryoptens affinis 'Crispa Gracilis'; the rest of the alpines and the splendid way they were 
displayed made up for that. 

Outside the large greenhouses we met for the afternoon session and Mike led us inside to 
see the huge platyceriums. One plants of Platycerium bifurcatum is in excess of 100 years 
old, having come from the garden's previous home at Chiswick. Discussion followed on 
the status of a splendid Davallia and Mick Craddock was given a piece to take home to 
identify. In the tropical area we admired a few large ferns as well as a jade plant in glorious 
woom. Moving into the Singapore Airlines Orchid Display area we of course admired the 
a lantums and we were shown a fine specimen of Adiantum trapeziformt given to the 
Pnnce of Wales. Mike informed us that the donor had visited the house only recently and 
had been surprised to see it still in its original pot, a hollowed out tree-fern trunk. 

Outside the Stanley Smith Orchid House i 

on a few varieties as to whether they \ 

disagreement about the identity of one or two of the hardy species in this border. Moving 

on to Battlestone Hill we had to admire the Dicksonia antarctica; the older, more 

established plants had many luxuriant fronds. 

We were pleased to meet two of our newer members, Andy and Marti Martin, and trust that 

they enjoyed the day and will attend some of our other meetings. Thanks are due to Mike 

Grant who once again gave up a summer Saturday and was not only generous with his time 

and patience but nearly disappeared into the pond trying to reach a good piece of Davallia 

for Mick to identify. 


15 July A.R. Busby 

Sixteen members attended the Midlands Fern Show held at the University of Warwick's 
Science Education Department at Westwood. It was very gratifying to see Steve and Karen 
Munyard there with a selection of books from the BPS Booksales. Another feature of the 
meeting was a large selection of ground grown ferns for sale kindly donated by Mrs Sue 

During the morning, members visited my garden in Kirby Corner Road and much 
discussion took place concerning my biggest garden problem, namely the control ot 
bindweed or rather my lack of control of this pernicious weed. In the afternoon Dr Alan 
Ogden gave us an illustrated talk on his recent visit to Ecuador. His slides featured many, 
largely unnamed, cloud forest ferns. 

The main event of the day of course was the competitive fem classes. Regrettably, Mrs Rita 
Coughlin was unable to attend to judge the ferns so this heavy burden fell upon me. 
Class 1 - One Pot Fern (any kind or variety) 

1st L. Kirkham, 2nd R.J. Smith, 3rd J. Whysall (11 entries) 
Class 2 - Three Pot Ferns (any kind or variety) 

1st L. Kirkham, 2nd R.J. Smith, 3rd J. Whysall (5 entries) 
Class 3 - One Pot Equisetum (any kind or variety) 

1st P J Acock 2nd P.J. Acock, 3rd P.J. Acock (5 entries) 
Class 4 - One Pot Aquatic Fern (Azolla, Salvinia or Marsilea only) (no entries) 
The general condition of the exhibits was excellent although a number of plants displayed 
obvious damage by scorching and some exhibits, though quite adequatel y < ^** «™ 
poorly presented. There was a tie between Lawrence Krrkham and Patrick Acock for the 
most points awarded, so the J.W. Dyce Trophy will be shared by them this year. 

to review how the classes are formulated, I 
r to distinguish between indoor and hardy " 

on attendance 1 

Although sixteen is a slight improvement 

disappointing Perhaps some members are under the illusion that to attend the meeting you 

a^oSo exhibit ferns. Nothing could be farther from fe ^ We wdcome a 

members at this meeting. My thanks to all those members who did kindly support this 

meeting, especially those who travelled long distances. 


This meeting unfortunately had to be cancelled owing to lack of interest. 


LEEDS & DISTRICT Barry Wright 

Brockadale, Nr Wentbridge, N. Yorkshire - 24 June (Leaders: Ron & Pat Cole) 

Our first outing of the year was to the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust nature reserve at 
Brockadale. The reserve comprises woodland and pasture set in a deep valley of the River 
Went on Magnesian Limestone. We met in the new car park at 44/508175. From there we 
set off down into the valley and the wooded area where we came across Dryopteris filix- 
mas, with some of the great many Asplen plants and the more elusive 

Polypodium vulgar e. There were relatively few Dryopteris dilatata. Ron then led us to an 
area where he assured us we would find Ophioglossum vulgatum and possibly Botrychium 
lunaria. After much effort we found the former at 44/50691702. Also in this area were a 
few Dryopteris affinis subsp. borreri. 

The route to the pub took us past many more luxuriant stands of scollies. We chalked up 
Al bridge. There were some Asplenium ruta-muraria 
y at 44/49751717. After a good lunch we set off back 
t of the route, but deviated to take in the delights of 
Pteridium aquilinum. But we did find one oddity in a single specimen of Dryopteris 
■'— -, staying away from the calcareous substrate by growing on a rotten tree stump 

: wonderful scollies i 

t 44/50191729. There v 

Grass Wood and Bolton Abbey Woods, Wharfedale, N. Yorkshire - 15 July 
(Leader: Barry Wright) 

The day began at another Yorkshire Wildlife Trust reserve - Grass Wood near Grassington 
at 34/983653. We were met by Martin Hanson, who is doing a methodical botanical survey 
of the wood, and Ellis Tinsley, the warden for the day. Ellis guided us through the myriad 
paths to the starting point for our study. There was the expected mix of calcicolous species 
■^'lopemiruun, A. tnchomanes subsp. cptadnvalens and Cystopteris fragdis 
(34/99.06527) along with the other common species such as Dryopteris filix-mas and 
Hut, more unusually, we came across Athxrutnt hln-nnnnu and. on the leaf 
mould humus, Oreopteris limbosperma (notably at 34/98896547). There were also a very 
tew specimens of what seemed to be young Dryopteris affinis subsp. affinis oi subsp. 
borreri. These were small, but were curious; they had the dark spot at the pinna-rachis 
junction, but they were not typical of a D. affinis. We also came across one plant of 
Blechnum spicant (34/98426550) and the ubiquitous Pteridium aauilinum. 
After a pleasant lunch under Kilnsey Crag we set off to explore Bolton Abbey Woods. We 
parked at the car park at the Strid end of the wood ( 34/05956 J I This wood was also one 
exhtbiting a m.xed fern flora of differing pH tolerances The main component species were 
a vast carpet ot i)n: (>P n m dilatata vsith some /;. filix-mas. We took the upper path down 
nlmZ ° Ut HalfWay d ° Wn the ,e "g th °f *e —I was a s.eep shallow ghyll 

(34/07.35589), above whtch was Plu^.t ,„,„,„„ mi , M L which was 

Polystichum aculeatum. This general nnxnw continual \uth Vlnrimn fiiix-femina. 
Oreopteris limbosperma, Cystopteris fragilis, Pol i umi spicant. 

At the Bolton Abbey end we joined the 'Carriage Walk" back to the car park. It was 
surprising that we found all of the species we had seen on the upper path earlier plus 

oak fern grew side-by-side with Phegop 
very large - 1.5m plus - plants of Athyn 
the whole of the River Wharfe is funnel 
stride over, although it is true that many 
Truly a wonderful place to see a w ide \ a 
Dentdale, Cumbria - 12 August (Lt 

On the road to the wood < 
in the verge. In the wc 

iDrxonierisfilix-mas). At 

After a pleasant lunch in Dent, where we 
up to Stone Rigg at 34/683864 for a trek 
This was steep hillside with scree and cli 

tolerant of the exposure o 

ifluencc ot tl 
The fitter members seraml 

wonderful hospitality of Alan ttS Iliuuueu 

fern-filled garden. Thanks to Alan and Freda for a wonderful day. 

Rossmoor, Allerthorpe Common, Londesborough Cross, East Yorkshire - 
■ (Leaders: Sylvia Medd & Barry Wright) 

horticultural event, the visit to Sylvias garden in Shiptonthorpe and our tund-raising bnng- 
and-buy sale. 

,.,™h r,n a firm recently bought by Mr J. Roth 
The day began with a trip to a wood on i 
woodlands were being rejuvenated and we were re. 
colleagues in ADAS, a woodlands consultant. An earue. rec« 

anhhad fhe most abundant speue, ^ IU <>;—-< < ^" 

, ls , omi o,u I hue uete feu plants ot D qjfims. probably subsp. t -„, 

the plants were immature. Pttridium m X'a'ieu 

sm^Tbur^Uy recusable" plants at 44/73574384. We tried hard to make some of the 

Lunch at the pub was followed by a somewhat disappointing visit to a Yorkshire Wildlife 
Trust reserve at Allerthorpe Common. There were certainly plenty of 'real' ferns - i.e. ferns 
other than Pteridium aquilinum - in there, but apart from some better specimens of 
Dryopteris carthusiana it was nearly all the same species - D. dilatata. When you've seen 
one D. dilatata, you've seen 'em all. We spent a happy little hour trying to spot the non- 
dilatatas. We did find a few, notably D. affinis subsp. afftnis and a few more 
D. carthusiana. 

But the highlight was a trip round Sylvia's garden. Her one acre garden is open to the 
public on several occasions each year under various charity opening schemes. It is crammed 
full of interesting plants including some which don't have spores. But those with spores are 
maturing well in the increasing number of fern beds and the newly erected shade-house. I 
don't know if her husband, John, realises that this is just the No. 1 shade-house! 
Thanks to Linda Pickering and Sylvia for providing tea and sticky buns before our bring- 
and-buy sale, thus topping-off another good season of meetings for our group. 
Unfortunately this year was tainted by the sad news of the death of Eric Baker and, two 
days before our AGM, the death of one of our mainstay members, Betsy Kohler, in a tragic 
boating accident. Our sympathies go to their respective families. 


The Barbican, London - 5 March Paul Ripley 

Ten members and friends attended the first South-East meeting of the Millennium, and 
were treated to a fascinating and quite unexpected series of delights in a part of the world 
not normally noted for its flora. 

The Barbican development in the City of London includes 4,500 of the most expensive flats 
in Britain, in the highest residential building in London, in addition to leisure and office 
facilities. Between the storage and rehearsal areas for the Royal Shakespeare Company and 
the London Symphony Orchestra lies a site, awkward in area and layout, which has been 
turned into a series of gardens. Administered by the City, but maintained by the Parks 
Department, it is embarrassingly expensive to run (heating alone costs £400,000 per 
annum!, serves as a venue for corporate hospitality and is only sporadically open to the 
public. Operating m a symbiotic relationship, Stefan Czeladzinski maintains the National 
Collection of Selaginella here, and is largely responsible for the number of unusual and 
exotic ferns scattered throughout the garden. 

Mention should be made of the rock garden, where fine clumps of Asplenium marinum (of 
origin) flourished, but the bulk of the garden is covered by glass. It is an 
amising environment, consisting of shallow and poorly drained clay beds, with a 
rather dry atmosphere and variable light levels. It also has a very high roof, which perhaps 
accounts tor the heating bill but also allows some mature and handsome specimens of 
tica to be accommodated. Ferns of particular interest were the several very 
nidus, Tectaria spp., Actiniopteris and a number of Phymatosorus 
im) (e.g. P.scandens) and Elaphn<Jossum species Cvrtomium falcatum and 
auiantums grew everywhere almost as weeds. 

^l h L 8 l! Ii ^L 0f .! OU !' Se was . Stefan ' s Selaginella collection. A few were planted in the 

" in pots permanently covered by polythene flasks. Stefan has 

growing this large (about 750 species) and difficult group, 

large Asph 

clearly become 

and his knowledge was enormously impressive 5 He" had 

the characters " " 

group and illustrating « 

Stefan's plants were well grown, receiving great care, aiul many were handsome and 
beautiful. S. erythropus, with its strong red colour, would be an award-winning plant in 
many a display. Many are hardy (given protection from drought) and deserve to be better 
known and more widely grown. 

Our day next included a trip to the Columbia Road flower street market, where an 
extraordinary selection of plants, some very good value, were being sold on either side of 
an undistinguished East London street. Steve Munyard spotted Dick.sonnt upmrrosa among 
the more usual D. antarctica. Most of us finished the day with a late lunch at a convenient 
Wetherspoon pub, and all were most grateful to Stefan for sharing his knowledge and 
providing some quite unexpected treats. 

Walliswood, Surrey - 24 June Pat Acock 

Graham Ackers was our host for the day and a splendid host he turned out to be. We could 
have used a few more members but this did not detract from the proceedings. Graham had 
produced a collection of papers to help us during the day which was to be in three parts. 
Firstly we followed the footpath opposite the car park at 51/119381 through a wood 
towards the local church. In the wood a number of small rivers cut into the sandy soil and 
joined one another, eventually making two deeper valleys. We thought at first that we were 
only going to see the commonest three ferns typical of these nutrient poor soils. Dryopteris 
dilatata, D.filix-mas and Pteridium aquilinum. However, on searching deeper in the woods 
we were able to add Dryopteris carthusiami. D. a [finis subspp. affinis and borreri, 
Asplenium scolopendrium and Athyrium filix-femina. The church had been repointed 
recently and did not host any ferns on its walls, although just beyond it we found 
Polypodium vulgare. We returned along another deep cut valley that, for no obvious reason, 
proved considerably more barren of ferns. 

It was at this point of the day that our host bought us a round of drinks and we enjoyed 
lunch in the 487-year-old inn. Afterwards we drove just half a mile or so to Walhs Wood 
Nature Reserve at 51/121388 where Graham introduced us to Sue Cooper, the Warden. Sue 
explained that this oak/hazel coppiced woodland was becoming increasingly rare in the 
South-east and the Surrey Wildlife Trust had been grateful for having the opportunity to 
acquire it. We were to survey it for her and Graham carefully plotted our finds on the 

detailed maps r 

jvith earlier and later produced a report with management 

We quickly re-established the presence of Dryopteris carthusiana. Sue had taken us to see 
Blechnum spicant and mentioned that one of the plants the wood was reported to have in it 
was the violet helleborine Epipactis purpurata, which she hoped to find. Hardly had the 
words left her mouth when Peter Clare spotted a helleborine within a yard of us. I think we 
should go back to confirm the species once it is mature. Sue also told us that the wood had 
many characters of ancient woodland: beside the hornbeams there were wild plums and 
pears and also a few wild service trees. We found all the ferns seen in the morning as well 
as a fine colony of a crisped form of Pteridium aquilinum and a few very large specimens 
of Dryopteris carthusiana. 

The third strand of the day was the visit to Graham and Lesley's house to see their fems, or 
was it for the cream tea - both were equally fine. Graham has an exquisite collection of 
ferns raised from spores and bulbils as well as ones sought out from nurserymen. Many of 
them are plants that he has come to love from his many fern forays around the world. He 
has a large shaded border as well as other areas of the garden, ponds and stream bank 
covered in hardy fems. Inside his greenhouses, which he keeps just frost free, he keeps the 
more tender Oceanic fems, while those that need a little more heat fill the conservatory. 

' from Graham's study where 1 

I would like to thank Graham for the diligent way he had planned a day involving very little 
travelling but that had three very different aspects to it, and Lesley for tolerating our 
lingering on into the evening. 

Brockenhurst, New Forest, Hampshire - 2 September Paul Ripley 

Six members of the BPS South East group joined about 15 members of the Hampshire and 
Isle of Wight Natural History Group for a joint meeting organised by Catherine Chatters. 
Two people were actually members of both groups. 

Roydon Woods (we met at 41/305009) lie just outside the New Forest and comprise 
extensive low-lying mixed woodland. The soil is essentially acid but is sufficiently enriched 
with bases to permit Polystichum setifvnim and Asplviuum scolopendrium to grow 
commonly. The walk from the car park set the scene, with P. setiferum growing next to 
Bh-dnmm spirant. Other species were Athyriiim fdi.x-femimi. Drxoptens }uix-mas. 

and Polypodia 

m sp.; P. 

. interjectum was t 

he most likely 


but in lanes n 

ear the wood P. interjectum grew cl< 

)se to plants which 

were probably 

re. We were t Drvtiptcris 

unusually growing 

am-bank, and Osmunda regali. 

r. Further into 

the uooc 

1 Dryopteris affinis 

became much 

I> nln „ , 

, and we saw 

D. affir 

lis subspp. borrei 

n and affinis. 

had lunch. 

In the afternoon we visited Jo Basil's garden. Jo kindly provided us with tea, and we saw 
some very well grown ferns including a very handsome Pellaea atropurpurea. 
finally, alter a visit to Spinners nursery where among other things North American 
Dryopteris spinulosa was for sale (I maintained this was different from D. carthusuma). 
Andrew Leonard kindly took us to see the Ophioglossum azmicmn site in the car park at 
Warwick Slade (41/271065). Although late in the season and difficult to spot, the plants 

14 October 

Park, and Rosemary Hibbs' Garden, Hailsham, East Sussex - 

East Sussex, but although < 

Paul Ripley 

famous Sheffield Park Gardens 
: property is centred around three 
■et, with Hooding in many parts of 

-J off. the grounds had recovered 

well. Sheffield Park is famed for its autumn colours and the trees, especially 
- -,-,s u„d redwoods were magnificent. It is no. par.ieularlv Icrnv but the Osnnmda 
regaks sponng happily near the waterfalls, were ve, , Inn Man, ,„ ." ,,, smaluoptcm is 
naturalised near a stream gully where it grows with Onoclea semibilis, the latter only 
surviving in shade under a footbridge over the stream. 

After lunch, inevitably at Sheffield Park station on the Bluebell Railway, we called in at a 
t arden centre visited by Steve Munyard a few years previously Alas' Not only had the 
garden centre become part of the Wyevale chain, but we were held up by the chaos 
following a horrendous accident which closed the A22 for several hours. 

We made it to Rosemary Hibbs' home eventually, and by her garden. 

Not only is there a wealth of ferny interest, with plants in the most unexpected places, hut 
Rosemary's family have a number of memorabilia in the garden, including a working 
semaphore railway signal, which had been lit for our visit. We were also fascinated by 

m tern-raising, especially of adiantums. 

After tea we were entertained by slide-shows of visits made by Graham Ackers to 
remarkable sites on the Azores, and by other members to North Spain (GEP meeting i and 
south-east Australia, finishing with tree-fern artistry by Jennifer Ide. Our grateful thanks are 
due to Rosemaiy and her family for their warm hospitality and for the trouble they had 
taken to provide us with such an interesting visit. 


Indoor Meeting, Little Thurlow, Suffolk - 30 January Rosemary Stevenson 

The pleasure of having the opportunity to get together with others m the group during The 
Close Season' for ferns was apparent on the faces of members as they gathered tor the now 
traditional mid-winter meeting. Once again Mary Hilton kindly welcomed us into her home 
and the splendid large room, with log fire blazing, which makes such a perfect setting for 

news or viewing the golden carpet of aconites in Man's garden while our speaker lor the 
day, Patrick Acock, prepared all that he had brought to interest us. 

After a brief synopsis of his own long interest in terns, dating back to 1W6. Patrick ga\e us 
an interesting illustrated talk about the history and of the GEP (Group of 
European Pteridolonists). This organisation was founded to provide a lorum tor amateur 
and professional pteridologists to discuss ideas and knowledge about pteridophytes in the 
field on a rciiular basis • Mtme lit'ferent I . bitats and giving people the 

^ Species rhex aix not familial with. In 1991 Paul Ripley organised a BPS 
field meeting in Brittany. A variety of other ptenaological excursions m Europe followed 
on under different guises and the GEP was launched in 1995 with a visit to Southern Spain. 
Since that successful meeting members have enjoyed trips to various European countries. 
Patrick then went on to show slides of the 1999 GEP visit to the Bavarian Alps. Here they 
ere ,\^L to iew it one site seven lycopods. including four species ot Dipha.siastrum. and 
site in a quarry they were pleased to be able to examine 
two aspleniums-'.-W/^/n//// cwwifoliwn and A. aduhenmun. while on a journey high up in 
the mountains they weie shown a bright green grov mg 

called luminous moss'. Here too, were Crxpio^nummi criym ana ( wf, v >/cm nam is an . 
on the lower slopes, examples of beech fern We were also told o. the,, experiences during 
a brief excursion over the border into the Czech Republic where they found a bleak 

cky rubble whic 

.'- '..' sp . -. 

vegetation. Th ow un nines ucyuuu u.c 

border, even buildup had been raised to the ground. Despite 

" ' ' L Ul . 

see Botn-chuun nwmcanifolium and B. Innaria and H/>/« crrcnt, o,n,lc., 

here, it was thought, because they are not attractive to slugs which were obviously i 
deterrent to the survival of other plants in this very wet area. 

Patrick emphasised the role of the GEP in drawing together people of man; 

rough their common interest in ferns, and the importance of British member 
being involved, rather than taking an insular view and not looking beyond our own shores. 

3 see (while enjoying Mary's delicious 

brought by those present. Reluctantly 

light but with the feeling that the winter had 

's meetings could now be eagerly a 

Bradfield Woods, Suffolk and Sylvia Norton's Garden, West Wickham, 
Cambridgeshire - 11 June Tim Pyner 

Eleven members met at Bradfield Woods near Bury St Edmunds (52/934581). These are 
ancient woodlands with a rich ground flora and a good variety of shrubs. Our leader was 
Angie Steel who lives locally and has an intimate knowledge of the woods. The soil is 
boulder clay with some areas of overlying acid gravels. Bracken, Pteridium aquilinum, was 
Male fern, Dryopteris filix-mas, was frequent throughout the 

: . rivale, and a range of hybrids between them. Broad buckler, Dryopteris dilatata, 
ow buckler fern, D. carthusiana, were abundant in places, particularly in a non- 
:ess. Scaly male fern, D. affinis subsp. 
barren, and lady fern, Athyrium fitix-femina, occurred as scattered plants throughout the 
woods. Other plants of interest seen were leaf rosettes of oxlips. Primula elatior, and 
frequent common spotted orchids, Dactylorhiza fuchsii. 

After a picnic lunch we met at Sylvia Norton's garden at West Wickham. Sylvia's garden is 
well known as the home of the National Collection of Lathyrus, of which she has an 
extensive knowledge. We were treated to a guided tour of this fascinating collec 
/ interesting and beautiful plants. Sylvi 

:o a guided tour of this fascinating collection along 
with the rest of the garden which has r 
a keen interest in ferns which thrive 

England. Various Dryopteris, Polxstichum and Polypodium varieties 
throughout the garden and add excitement for the pteridologist. Even 
Bleehnum ehilense and B. penna-marina were thriving. 
A very pleasant day was completed by Sylvia's marvellous tea, well up to the standard for 
which the East Anglian Group is renowned. 

Catfield Fen and Winterton Dunes, Norfolk - 9 July Anne Beaufoy 

Sunday 9th July was a day of varying weather with the rain, at times torrential, graciously 
relenting to allow 15 members and friends to visit our two chosen venues. Steve Munyard 
kindly led the group of keen fern enthusiasts in a part of England not renowned for a 
proliferation of species but which boasts one particular treasure. 
Our first call was at Catfield Fen (63/369215) near Barton Broad, administered by the 

milk parsley. The area includes sheltering carr of alders and oaks where Dryopteris dilatata 
flourishes. Dykes of rich, dark water, the habitat of yellow waterlily, frogbit and 
bladderwort divide these areas from the adjacent more open fen where the reed beds are 
dominated by Phragmites, bog myrtle, hemp agrimony and birch scrub, in the understorey 
oi which runs Thelypteris palustris. On relatively less wet islands of Sphagnum amongst 
the standing-water flora grew our goal - sturdy plants of Dryopteris cristata with attendant 
U carthusiana, and after a little search the hybrid D. x uliginosa was found. Osmunda 
regahs added its splendid presence. 

We repaired to Winterton Dunes Nature Reserve (63/496198) on the coast only a few miles 
» •» fmd the dry dunes and freshwater slacks giving such a sharp contrast to the 
• environment of Catfield, yet two fern species manage to colonise both. 
Uatata albeit in 'bonsai form', occurs in the low heathland herbage while 

OwuinJa flourishes, with spore heads rampant, as thickets i 
found a polypody, probably Polypodium vulgare, amongst 
and lichen. A few rather greasy looking pools provide damp 
see tiny toadlets of the Natterjack scuttling among the bog pi 
The day's activities concluded with a welcome and won 
kindly provided by Bryan and Gill Smith at their recently i 
sheltered garden at Oulton Broad, where their fern collection 

j nl the hollows. We also 
)Ots of heather, bed straw 
and we were delighted to 

Weald of Kent - 10 September Barrie S 

Our early autumn meeting took us south of the Thames with Steve Munyard as o 
A group of 14 members and friends enjoyed the warm, sunny day during which 
fine tally of ferns, many of which are totally unknown in East Anglia. We met at t 
of Eridge Green on the A26 south of Tunbridge Wells for the short walk to tl 
Wildlife Trust Nature Reserve at Eridge Rocks (51/557357). This is a vast oufcn 
sandstone, weathered into often grotesque shapes; such outcrops are distinctive f 
this area of Kent. 

Steve first led us through a narrow cleft between two high rocks towards I n 
where we found Hymenophyllum tunbrigense. However, the recent cutting 
Rhododendron ponticum had left the site exposed, and the fronds showed distinc 
desiccation. We walked further around the rock formation, passing stands of / 
dilatata and Pteridium cu/nilinnni to an area which had not been cleared and fci 
short section of sheltered pathway, good specimens of Blechnum spicant, Atkyi 
femina, Dryopteris filix-mas and /). tiffin is subspp. affinis and borreri. We found i 
area partly overhung with tree branches and on inclined rock surfaces, two large r 
Hymenophyllum tunbrigense, the more exposed of the two with main fertile from. 
typically fa 

East Anglian Regional Group's visit to Eridge F 

Standing: Barrie & Rosemary Stevenson, Karen Munyard, Bryan & GiU 

Anne Beaufoy, Marie Winder, Tim Pyner, Steve Munyard, Geoffrey Winder. 

After a picnic lunch we made our way to a site to the south-east of Eridge Green, on the 
A267 (51/582335). We walked through the roadside woodyard to the woodland beyond at 
Saxonbury Hill. Here we found head-high stands of Ptcridium aquiliimm through which a 
narrow pathway had been cleared earlier that morning by Steve (ably assisted by Peter 

sheltered a damp bank which supported a thriving colony of Hynwnophyllum 
igense and also a splendid group of Dryopteris aemula. In a deep hollow below the 
,'e also found Oreopteris limhospenna. Drxoptens \ complcxu (previously known as 
■elii). D. x deweveri and D. carthusiana. Our visit to Saxonbury Hill was in fact a 
Igic reminder for Steve of the Inaugural Meeting of the South East Group (led by 
Jenmi at this site on 8th July 1984. 

Ik: La 

We rounded off our day by driving to Paul and Ln to the north ot 

Tonbridge. Here we found Paul's ferns (mainly a large collection of Polystichum and 
Drxoptcris) growing very happily in a splendid woodland setting, while more tender ferns 
tinned in a polythene tunnel. Linda had provided a tremendous spread of refreshments for 
our visit and, grateful for such generous hospitality, we rounded off an excellent day by 
sitting in the late afternoon sunshine, sipping tea and nibbling scones and cakes in a 
typically Hnglish fashion. 

End of Season Indoor Meeting, Barrow, Suffolk - 29 October Barrie Stevenson 

At the time of writing we are looking forward to our traditional autumn get-together at the 
house of Marie and Geoff Winder. 

The programme will include slides and videos of ferns in America and New Zealand, and 
displays of photographs of National and Regional BPS meetings, fern-ware boxes and 
book-bindings and a photographic record of the fern-decorated ceramics, glass and treen 
from the Reserve Collection of the Museum of North Devon a) Barnstaple. The afternoon 
will conclude with the delicious refreshments without which this particular occasion would 
not be complete. 


Millennium Supper and Lecture, Crooklands Hotel - 1 April Melville Thomson 

This was a social occasion instigated during our 1999 AGM in response to a request by 
members who wished to celebrate the new millennium. The deal was that a good night out 
would be justified only if legitimised by cultural overtones with an emphasis on 
pteridology. The proposal was carried and the group accepted a suggestion that the topic 
should be fossil ferns. We were fortunate in enlisting the support of Dr Margaret Collinson, 
Reader in Plant Paleobiology, Geology Department, Royal Holloway University of 
London to provide the 'overtones'. She chose to broaden the subject to 'Fossil Ferns and 
their Allies - a tour through 450 million years of earth history". It was felt that 
consideration of this enormous span of time would help us keep a sense of proportion about 
the mere 2,000 years that we were celebrating. 

In the event, forty-six North West Group members turned out for the evening and were 
augmented by guests from the Westmorland Geological Society who appreciated this 
opportunity to share common ground. Dr Collinson, with the aid of an impressive selection 
of slides and samples, ambitiously surveyed the development of ferns and related 


pteridophytes, from the primime Hhaeophvton. a fern-like plant ot Devonian times. 
through to the diversity of the Carboniferous and Jurassic flora. She demonstrated, using 
fossil evidence, how many evolutionary paths had failed while some had successfully led to 
the range of present-day ferns. Even more bravely, she demonstrated the technique o\ 
creating acetate casts of acid-etched fossils, not eas\ with makeshift equipment in a hotel 

can be captured in this way and used to siud_\ the distinctive features ot lone-gone terns. 

The lecture was very well received and an appreciative vote of thanks was proposed hv 

Alastair Wardlaw. 

h launched the Group into 
nd and body. 

Grange in Borrowdale, Cumbria - 10 June Peter Hindle 

On a cool, blustery but sunny day eighteen ^\ us assembled at the Bowder Stone car park 

(35/252168). situated at an altitude of Win. We were pleased to welcome several members 

higher up the valley. The rock type is Borrowdale volcanics. We walked alone the road and 
over the bridge into Grange village, examining good specimens ol l)ryopten\ iiitmis (which 
always provoke discussion). /). Idix-mas and a piolusion ot /'/< intumi ,../.„/„.„,... I he 
bridge over the River Derwent gave us Asplenium mta-muraria. A. tnehomane\ subsp. 


en moved up t 

\<>ptcn\ d 

i on a ory-su nc &u. ■ a 

'scouting parties' explored a damp shady slope and reported a profusion ol Hyim > « >pl; m 
wilsonii (in 1994 we had found only a few specimens). An extra bonus tor the scars hers 
was a number of plants of Dryopteris affims subsp. barren. As our route passed through 
woodland we were able to record both Gynmocarpium dryopteris and Plnuopnrn 

eonnectilis. The more nimble of the group then ascended a steep slop, and examined 
Asplenium septentrionale (noted some years ago) 1 

noted in this area by our Group. 

After lunch we circled Castle Crag, seeing many of the ferns alreadj mentioned; flu 

caverns (probablv small quarries), while yielding Gyi <■' -" ' •< "^ ' n quantity 

gave us no surprises. Our surprise was to find, near the river, a 

Onoelea sensibilis. Jermv and Camus 1 1 he Illustrated Held Gmdt la tmis am, A,:n<. 
Plants of the British Isles p. 190) say "a few well-established populations exist in Cumbria 

The excursion ended at the home and garden of Nan Hicks, with afternoon tea and time to 
study her fern collection and a rich variety of other plants. On our way back to the Bowder 
Stone we looked at fronds in the churchyard and opinion was that we could probably 
include D. oreades on our list, which brought the count up to 19 species and one variety. 
Many thanks to all members whose knowledge and advice made the day such a success. 
Special thanks to Nan and Sam Hicks for their generous provisioning of the party. 

Gait Barrows NNR and Hutton Roof Crags NNR - 1 July Mike Porter 

Situated at about 30 metres above sea-level in the far north of Lancashire, Gait Barrows 
NNR (34/480772) consists of a large area of limestone pavement surrounded by deciduous 
woodland, much of the reserve being on a warm south-facing slope. Although some 
damage has been done in the past, large sections of the pavement have remained 
undisturbed and are home to a wide range of colourful plants and many different species of 
butterfly. Twenty-two members of the North West group met here on a warm sunny 
morning to investigate the fern flora of the reserve and to compare it with the higher, colder 
limestone pavements at Great Asby which were visited in 1999. 

The wooded areas around the pavement hold a good collection of common ferns - 
Dryopteris filix-mas, D. dilat 

being well represented. However, the landscape changes dramatically as the dense 
encircling trees are left for the open pavement. Here are wide expanses of smooth limestone 
split by grykes and pock-marked with water-worn holes and, after the shade of the woods, 
the sunlight reflecting on the pale rocks can be dazzling. In the cracks and holes in the 
limestone we ton . 

and A. trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens. There were also scattered clumps of the limestone 
speciality Dryopteris submontana whose greyish fronds, like those of many of the other 
ferns, rarely appear above the surface of the limestone, preferring the moist shade within 
the grykes to the desiccating climate above. As we investigated the extensive pavements we 
noted many interesting non-fern species including northern bedstraw (Gallium boreale), the 

fingered sedge (Carex digitata). 

A surprising addition to our list of ferns was a fine specimen of Dryopteris carthusiana 
found earlier by a member of the group in a somewhat moister area below the pavement 
and we were pleased to discover an attractive patch of Asplenium ceterach as we made our 
way back across the pavement for lunch. Interestingly, we had seen no specimens of either 
A. viride or Gymnocarpium robertianum, often common plants of this habitat, but the low 
altitude of Gait Barrows provides the explanation for their absence. 

After a convivial lunch the party, much reduced in size, moved on to Hutton Roof Crags 
(34/555780), another limestone pavement but situated considerably higher than Gait 
Barrows, at about 260m. We quickly added new species to our list for the day including 
Cystopteris fragilis and Phegopteris connectilis, this latter growing on humus on the edge 
of a small patch of woodland and noted earlier by two members of the group. Even before 
we reached the pavements proper we found large quantities of Gymnocarpium robertianum 
growing abundantly on limestone clitter close to the path. In this same area we also spotted 
a few plants of fly orchid (Ophrys insectifera). The limestone pavements themselves held 
good quantities of Dryopteris submontana, Gymnocarpium robertianum and Polystichum 
aculeatum but, as we had noted on previous visits, very little Asplenium viride, probably 
because of the moderate altitude of the site. On the Orton limestones, rising to over 400m, 
this species is much more frequent. 

The early sunshine had now given way to cloud but the weather was still warm as we made 
our back to the road and it was not until we were heading for home that rain started to fall. 

Coniston and Grizedale, Cumbria - 29 July Jack Garstang 

l the road alongside Church 
t-too-strenuous walk around the village. Stone walls - 
boundary, free-standing, retaining, bridging, dry-stone and mortared - were the main man- 
made habitats en route. Within a few yards of the cars an extensive colony of the calcicole 

Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens mixed with a few plants of A. ceterach 
populated the side of an old boundary wall, put together with a mortar of slaked lime and 
coarse grit. The wall top was one continuous line of Polypodium interjectum, thriving on 

representative of Dryopteris filix-mas. 

Looking over the bridge in the village centre we saw a cristate Athyrium fdix-femina, 
Polypodium vulgare, Asplenium scolopendrium and A. trichomanes. Dryopteris fdix-mas. 
D. affinis subsp. cambrensis, Athyrium t: Hum interjection flanked the 

road leading up to the Sun Hotel. An adjacent cottage garden displays a huge Osmunda 
regalis in an elevated position and in superb condition, its rhizome base - about two feet in 
diameter - showing its age. Beautiful Athyrium fdix-femina overhung one side ot Station 
Road Beck, matched on the other side by mature Dryopteris dilatata. A retaining wall on 
the Miners' Track holds an ever-increasing colony of Asplenium adiantum-nigrum. 
Cryptogramma crispa, Oreopteris limbosperma, Asplenium ruta-muninu and Ptcndium 
aquilinum (sporeless) gave us plenty to talk about on the walk over Miners" Bridge and 
back down the Coppermines track to the cars. 

Lunch was enjoyed at The Kennels Road car park picnic site (34/3394) overlooking 
Grizedale Beck, the cool forest and dappled shade providing a welcome contrast to the hot 
and busy Coniston village. The car park gave us another fern, Onoclea sensibilis. oh\ ioush 
a garden escape. 

After lunch we went over the bridge to follow the path southwards alongside Grizedale 
Beck below the steep fern covered slopes of Bank End. Dryopteris affinis (we thought we 
found subspp. affinis, barren and cambrensis). D. fdix-mas. D. dilatata, all large, mature 
and numerous, covered the slopes and the path side. Huge Athyrium filix-femina overhung 
the stream and Blechnum spicant, Oreopteris limbosperma. Polypodium vulgare. 

North West Group members seated on a 

Thelma Tate Geo Will s, Melville Thomson, Harvey Shepherd, Alec Tate, Joan Hindle. Ron 

Copson, Marjorie Garstang P. n Bnan Haskins ' John Daffem ' 

talk Wilkins, Marion Mathews, Ann Haskins. 

Crossing over the mad near the Visitor Centre into the lane leading to Knott Coppice 
woods we passed a high retaining wall covered with Asplenium trichonuuws and 
A. ceterach. The A. ceterach fronds were totally reversed and inrolled, their rusty hacks 
recalling the plant's old name of 'Finger Fern". The lane, with its high elevated banks lined 
mainly with Dn-optcris affhus. D. filix-nuis and Athyrium Jl/iy./cnuna. gave us the unusual 

: ■■■ 

Our last site" was the forest sculpture no. la, 'Quarry Structure', a work of art by Richard 

Hams (ls>NO). Shaped like a giant millipede, but also resembling a scolly, this fine 
specimen was well able to support the whole party on its 'midrib'. The final destination was 

Isle of Bute, Argyll - 24-25 August 

(Leaders: Melville Thomson & James Merryweather) Jack Garstang 

Our first venture outside the North West area developed into a joint meet with BPS 
Scotland Group members on the Isle of Bute, where thirty members enjoyed marvellous 
summer weather throughout. Most members stayed in the Ardyne St Ebba Hotel and 
Restaurant, where we all assembled for dinner on the Wednesday evening with our ,uests and Wallace Fyfe and James Merryweather. After dinner, we listened intent!) to 
the history of the struggle and work which had gone into the restoration of Ascog Hall 
Fernery, beautifully articulated by Katherine FMe lol», dale nrese, ed Katherine with a 
finely dissected \< /w,, Vi / ( ,, 1M - Su/> Wong ' 

Geologically, Bute lies across the Highland Boundary Fault between Rothesay on the east 
coast and Scalpsie on the west coast, marked by Loch Fad and Loch Quien which almost 
cut the island in two. South of this line is old red sandstone and lava flows, to the north are 
schists. Sheltered from the south-w 

Thursday morning was given over to a visit to Ascog Hall Fernery and Gardens (26/1063). 
This Victorian sunken fern garden surprisingly has no heatm, swem and relies on being 
largely underground to protect its main non-hard\ ferns during the u inter months Here are 
well over 100 subtropical ferns, mainly from Austral 

collect.on reconstructed from an inventory of fern species dating from the original 
installation of 1870. Dicksonia antarctica and large beds of the Drvoptcns aifuus Jroup 
garden overlooking Ascog Bay. Our hosts Katherine and Wallace 
y e Kindly invited us to join them for tea and coffee in the Hall. 

The alternoon saw us moving on to Mountstuart (26/108594), the architectural fantasy of 
the third Marquess of Bute, situated in 300 acres of designer landscape This Victorian 
extravaganza has an extraordmaiy second 1 loo, maste. bed, ,om * th dnuhl, ! Mnvi doors 
opening onto a large heated rooftop conservatory filled with Chusan palms, tropical ferns 
and other exotic plants. Outside, Pohstuiuu,, andean,,,,. P. sctifvrum -Dixisilohum . 
IZTlT^TT """ ASPle,UWU "■"/"/«■"</'■''<» decorated «.k o, a landscape 1 
waterfal . Under the canopy o, this huge parkland were large stands of robust iJnopL 
ajflms p ants over one metre tall. James Merryweather took a small party to explore further 
wnne otners made their way back to the cars and the hotel. 

On Friday morning we went to Dunagoil Bay (26/0853). a small sandy cove in the south- 
west corner of Bute, overlooked by columnar hasah dil !"■ We found 1 Uniuin itianutm 
'""''"'"■ ' 4 ' ri " a -" n "'iii~t<i- Pryopreri.s filix-mas. I) dilatuhi / 

us to Balnakailly Burn (26/0274) with its 
, rocky outcrops, very long grass and head4nigh bracken - quite rough 
going but a very sheltered location. After many years of searching we now at last saw a 
Metis expansa, 70cm tall, finely cut and looking superb. Here were 
three Drxopieris species growing side by side in a group: D. aemula. D. dilatata and 
D. expansa - a wonderful sight! Hymetu and // wilsonii were also 

growing together on many rock-faces. A climb down to the burn revealed blankets of 
Dryopteris aemula on its banks while D. filix-mas. Athxrium tilix-fcmma and Bleclmum 
spicant were found on the way out. 
With some members having to catch an evening ferry off the island we split at this point 

Swindale, Cumbria - 16 September Robert Sykes 

We did not feel that we did justice to this area last year (1999 Bulletin Vol. 5 no. 4 p. 179) 

The best new ground was a gully high on the right as we approa 

(35/496115) which yielded Poly podium vulture. Oreopteris limbosp 

femina, Dryopteris affinis subsp iiffinis. l> dilatata. D. expansa (Jac 

Cryptogramma crispa, Asplenium trichomanes, Phegopteris eonnee 

aculeatum in a vertical rise of only 60 metres from an altitude of 500 r 

From there we traversed the crags, finding at various times in add 

dryopteris, Dryopteris filix-mas, D. oreades, D. affinis (paleaceo 

Cystopteris fragilis and Asplenium viride. The A. viride was not con 

several plants scattered about and one outcrop had seven clumps ol 

square yard or two - with Cryptogramma crispa. the arch calcifuge, ir 

felt privileged perched high above the v 

down Swindale with its crags and its drumlins. It is not just because it is beautiful that it is 

special; it is not usual for a Lake District valley head to be as rich as this in ferns and other 

flora. I still do not think that we have seen all there is to be seen there. We did not find the 

sheets of Dryopteris oreades that was so plentiful in 1983; either it has been 

comprehensively mown by the sheep, or it has succumbed to the bracken. And again we 

lacked the energy to hunt down the filmy fern. 

AGM, Holehird, Windermere, Cumbria - 7 October Mike Porter 

The venue for our seventh AGM. attended on this occasion by 30 members, was once again 
the Garden Room at Holehird. Last year we had decided to try a full day for the AGM and 
the success of this experiment encouraged us to repeat the formula. Thus the day started 
with tea, coffee and biscuits, followed by a tour of part of the gardens, expertly and 
entertainingly led by Cynthia Kelsall. The steadily falling rain was only a minor 
inconvenience as we looked at a wide range of attractive plants, paying panic l il 
to the many ferns which thrive here, the highlight being the National Collection of 

At 2 o'clock the official business of the day was transacted, including a brief summary of 
the year's highly successful and varied field meetings and suggestions for the programme 
for 2001. There followed an absorbing and detailed account by Heather McHaffie, entitled 
'The Alpine Lady Fern in Britain' in which, with the aid of slides, she recounted her work 
on Athyrium distentifolium. She explained that the endemic Athyrium flexile is simply a 
variety of A. distentifolium, occurring within populations of the latter on impoverished soils 
at altitudes of above 750m in the Central Highlands. It is a recessive form that has a 
distinctive appearance, being smaller in size than the type variety and with a markedly 
deflexed petiole. However, it is able to produce spores in a lower nutrient environment and 
thus, in a limited number of sites, is able to compete. Three large populations are currently 
known with occasional plants occurring elsewhere. The talk was followed by an enjoyable 
and lengthy discussion and many members were even happier when given specimens of 
both var. flexile and the type variety to take to good homes! 

The final business of the day was the consumption of the customary delicious tea provided 
by members and the presentation of prizes. These went to Les Dugdale (crossword - won 
on a cunning tie-break), Harvey Shepherd (Polystichum) and Jack Bouckley (small fern). 
Les now has the task of devising a ferny puzzle for next year. 

CORNWALL Rose Murphy 

Cam Galver, West Penwith, West Cornwall - 2 May 

On a really wonderful sunny day we held our first field meeting for the year - a visit to 
Cam Galver (10/4236) in West Penwith where we were joined by the National Trust 
Warden for the area, Joe Oliver. Despite the recent fire that had damaged much of the site 
we were able to find both filmy ferns, Hymenophyllum tunbrigense and H. wilsonii 
surviving well on the granite exposures on the north-east slope of the Cam (10/425365) and 
a good list of ferns was made, including Athyrium filix-femina, Blechnum spicant, 
Dryopteris affinis, D. dilatata, and D. aemula which was growing at the southern end of the 
Tor (10/427360). It was interesting to observe how the ferns were faring despite the 
strength and extent of the fire. All those previously recorded in the area were throwing up 
new fronds, particularly the bracken! 

After a picnic lunch we walked west towards Rosemergy (10/418363), stopping at intervals 
to observe the many large plants of Asplenium obovatum subsp. lanceolatum on the granite 
hedgewalls, some growing with A. adiantum-nigrum. Hopefully we searched for any plant 
that could possibly be the hybrid between the two, but none could be found. Dryopteris 
dilatata and D.filix-mas were abundant in wetter areas along the grass verges, while more 
D. aemula, growing low down on the hedgewalls, was in that uncurling stage that so well 
marks it as distinct from D. dilatata. Mortared walls by the old mine engine house below 
Cam Galver (10/421363) supported Asplenium scolopendrium and A. trichomanes subsp. 
quadrivalens, while a large pond nearby proved an irresistible attraction, this producing 
Osmunda regalis (10/420364). Both Polypodium inter jectum and P. vulgare were seen, the 
P vulgare being most common on the Cam, but occurring also along the tops of the 
hedgewalls where it was noticeably very stunted. The day ended with the find of P. x 
mantoniae on a roadside wall near Rosemergy (10/419363) where both parents were 
growing together. The identification of this hybrid was later confirmed. 

Mount Field, near Penhale Sands, West Cornwall - 24 May 

The locality for the sec< 
edge of Penhale Sands, I 
as well as marshes. Though Ophioglo. 

; was Mount Field (10/7856 & 10/7857). Sited * 

major aim of the visit) it proved to be a lively and interesting day. Chris Page was able to be 
with us in the morning and as a result we were fortunate enough to see not only three 
species of horsetail, Equisetum arvense, E. fluviatile and E. palustre, but also three hybrids, 
E. x dycei, E. x litorale and E. x rothmaleri, the first and third of these being recorded for 
the first time in West Cornwall. It was also interesting to learn that the presence of flag iris 
(Iris pseudacorus) was a good indicator for both E. fluviatile and E. palustre (we were in a 
marsh of varying degrees of wetness at the southern end of the field!). 
Rain drove us into a friendly pub at midday, giving us the opportunity to look at 
photographs taken by one of the group whei 
Anogramma leptophylla and Asplenium onopte 
it had once been thought to occur in Cornwall, 1 

Dozmary Pool, Bodmin Moor, East Cornwall - 7 June 

Originally a further visit to Rough Tor had been planned for this day as there had been a 
recent report of more Huperzia selago on its northern slopes, but at the last minute u was 
decided to visit both Dozmary Pool, the main site in Cornwall for Isoetes echinospom. and 
Colliford Lake. A small group met at the Jamaica Inn at Bolventor ready to drive towards 
Dozmary Farm (20/194746). In the shallow water at the edge of the pool, near the farm, 
spring quillwort was abundant and the young plants were so congested in some areas that 
they formed a veritable carpet. During the walk around the pool still more plants were seen. 
many this time in deeper water. Oreopteris limbosperma was also recorded, growing by the 
stream that flows out of Dozmary into Colliford Lake (20/194741). 

On the way back to Bolventor we followed the road past Higher St Lukes (20/189759) 
where a stop was made by a hedgebank that was particularly fern-rich. Here, in the roadside 
ditches, Athyriumfilix-femina, Dryopteris dilatata and D. affinis were locally frequent. One 
of these D. affinis plants appeared so distinct that it was hoped that it would prove to be 
subsp. cambrensis (20/189758), a fern that is very rare in Cornwall. Along these hedges 
both Blechnum spicant and Polypodium vulgare were also abundant growing with bilberry 
(Vaccinium myrtillus), B. spicant proving to be the most frequent fern on all kinds of banks 
and hedgewalls in the vicinity of Dozmary Pool. 

After a picnic lunch we drove down the rough lane to Meadows Downs (20/179737), 
hoping to find Botrychium lunaria which was last recorded in fields near the edge of 
Colliford Lake (20/181725) in 1987. The habitat was very changed, however, with much 
coarse grassland and though a thorough search was made, the moonwort could not be 
found. However, Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens was to be seen in abun ance 
on the mortared walls around Meadows Farmhouse (20/179737), more Oreopteris 
limbosperma was found further south on the 'Moonwort peninsula', and at Deweymeads, at 
the northern end of Colliford Lake, Asplenium adiantum-nigrum and A. scolopendnum 
were seen on ruins left after the flooding of Redhill Marsh and some farmland dunng the 
creation of the Lake. 

St Clement Wood, north of Truro, West Cornwall - 1 August 
Though a large part of St Clement Wood is now under conifers, it seemed an interesting 
site to visit as the wood is considered to be ancient and two of the areas, Lady s .Wood; ana 
Bishop's Wood are separated by a track that could well be mediaeval in origin In addition 
within Bishop's Wood there is an old circular fort whose banks support an abundance of 
Dryopteris aemula (10/829487). 

Fourteen of us met in the forestry car park (10/820477), the leader for the day being ; a ^new 
member. Matt Stribley. A short walk led us to the start of the mediaeval track (10/826480), 

a rather wet and bordered by Cornish hedges. Most of the ferns here 

were those that are typical of woodland: Athyrium filix-femina, Blechnum spicant, 
Dryopteris dilatata and D. filix-mas, but at the base of the track there were some fine plants 
of D. affinis subsp. affinis (10/827481) and halfway along it, where the hedges become very 
high and shaded, there was more D. aemula (10/826481) growing with Blechnum spicant, 
many bryophytes and such flowering plants as hairy wood-rush {Luzula pilosa) and wood 
sorrel (Oxalis acetosella). Returning to the main streamside path we continued north until 
the valley widened into a marsh with much Dryopteris carthusiana, D. dilatata and 
splendid Osmunda regalis. Here we found one plant of Dryopteris x deweveri (10/829482) 
which was just the third record for Cornwall. 

Before lunch, which was had on a sloping bank by the stream, there was one more plant to 
see. This was Hymenophyllum tunbrigense, not recorded here since 1867! It was growing 
over a rocky, cliff-like bank above the main path (10/832486) where the substrate was 
flushed with streams of water. The colony was very small but all were delighted to scramble 
up the rough slope in order to see this fern in only its third extant locality in West Cornwall. 
Though rain had threatened from time to time, the weather remained fine and we were able 
to explore still further, adding Dryopteris affinis subsp. borreri (10/831488), Polystichum 
setiferum and Pteridium aquilinum to the ferns seen, together with Polypodium interjectum 
on the branches of various oaks, and Asplenium adiantum-nigrum and A. scolopendrium on 
the mortared walls of a ruinous building. 

Higher St Lukes, near Bolventor, East Cornwall - 29 August 

Four of us revisited this area to search again for the Dryopteris that had looked so 
distinctive earlier in the year. We found one plant, growing in a roadside ditch south of 
Higher St Lukes (20/189758). It was mature enough to show all the characters that enabled 
it to be verified as D. affinis subsp. cambrensis, and though further ferns were looked at, 

; proved c 

: opportunity was taken to work along another 

road in the hope of finding more of the narrow scaly male-fern, but only D. affinis subspp. 
affinis and borreri were seen. Near St Luke's Chapel (20/195763) along this r 
ind hedges were thick with bryophytes and lichens and such fern 
filix-femina, Blechnum spicant, Dryopteris dilatata and D.filix-mas, with an w _ 
Polypodium vulgare. P. interjectum was rare and was found only on the mortared walls of 
badges, as that over the River Fowey at Ninestones (20/213733). One i 
polypody was seen between these two localities and it proved 

Fairy Cross, Lostwithiel, East Cornwall - 3 October 


i meeting held at the home of one of our members, Caroline 

Thomas, to discuss various aspects of growing ferns. It proved to be a most enjoyable and 
instructive day, dealing with the cultivation of ferns, the collection of spores, preparation of 
the sowing media, the sowing of the spores and the subsequent care of sporelings and 
developing plants. Further care, pests and problems were also covered and though the group 
was small, all present added to the success of the day by their queries, recounting 
experiences and contributing other information. As a result, many felt encouraged to try 
their hand at growing ferns from spores. 

After lunch, enlivened by a tasting of a present from America, canned fiddleheads, 
variously pronounced as crisp, vinegary and/or tasting of bracken(!), we walked around 

v a ri°'!e! s ^ e ^ e " joy l n ?_ the L wealth of both native and forei § n hard y fern s P ecies and 

) be grown indoors and these included Asplenium 
iltivars, and various Cheilanthes. 

bulbiferum, some Pteris s 

. . I I - 

Wildlife frust at Alict near Truro. 

SCOTLAND Heather McHaffie 

Glasgow - 8 July 

In July we went to see Alastair Wardlaw's garden and were joined by some members o\ the 
Hamilton Natural History Society. We spent the morning enjoying the wide dhersin o\ 
native and hardy foreign ferns, as well as Jackie's codec and cheese scones. It started to 
rain heavily by lunch time so we went back indoors. In the afternoon we visited Glasgow 
Botanic Garden and saw the famous filmy fern house B) special arrangement we were 
allowed to walk among the tree-ferns in the Kibble Palace glasshouse, which were vet) 
dense and of some antiquity. 

Island of Bute, Argyll - 24-27 August 

In August we joined the North West Group on Bute, where James Merrvweather took us to 
some very varied sites. Our first stop. o( course, was the Irrnety at Ascog where the plants 
provoked much discussion which was only stopped by the invitation to coftee We also 
visited a cave with Trichomanc gameloplntes and a spectacular bank ot Drxoptens 
aemula. Most of the Scottish group stayed on over the weekend and we went to see the 
fernerv again. We also walked around part of the south end of the island past an e\tensi\e 
area of Equisetum \ dyed. ScUi^mrlla sclauinoidtw and occasional!) abundant Asplcnium 
mannum. We were extremely fortunate with the weather and those of us from the east coast 
enjoyed the mild climate and more western species of ferns. 

Group of European Pteridologists (GEP) Excursion 

Patrick Acock 
of the 1992 BPS 

Picos de Europa, North-East Spain -4-9 August 

Ronnie Viane, co-ordinator of the GEP, led the group on a repeat 

s beautiful part of Spain 


warmer. We came from all over Western fcurope this year, with a nice blend ot regular 

members and one or two newer faces including some younger members. 

On the first day we journeyed to the Rio Zardon valley where in a steep sided gully we sa« 

Stewiozramma pozoi, Drxoptcris aemitla. Polxstichum sclitcntni. A^pUnuun uduintm 

After a beach lunch we proceeded to the type site for Drxopiens corleyi and its hybrid with 

D. qffinis, D. x asturiensis. 

Next day we visited the Mirador del Fito with its splendid views of the Picos. We were 

looking for Drxopteris .uancluca but the onl> strong candidate was close to the car park. 

Paul Ripley. hll nunes of D. aemula. After lunch at a local Sidrena 

with cider and blue cheese, a speciality of the region, we proceeded to aw. 

close to Gobiendes where the main interest was Stegnogramma pozoi, Woodn 

radicans, Hymenophylhim tiuibri^nse and Trichomanes speewsum. 

Monday was spent in limestone country between Lago Enol and Lago de la Ercina. An easy 

morning on scree slopes (G nduryoptens 

submontana) gave way to a stiff climb to much larger scree slopes where all v 

P ■'!> ^churns could be seen along with the hybrids P. x illyricum and P. x lonchmforme. 

On Tuesday, after a long drive to Soto de Sajambre in the Rio Sella Valley, we had another 
rather long climb, but were finally rewarded by finding Athyrium distentifolium. That 
evening we had a fine farewell dinner. 

On the last day the British trio were joined only by Andreas Sarazin who took us to a valley 
south of Cangas de Onis to see another plant of Dryopteris x asturiensis, a magnificent 
specimen. We at last had our gentle day, gradually working our way up the valley noting 
many of the ferns that we had seen earlier on the tour. In a steep sided gorge we were 
rewarded for our persistence by finding a new site for Culcita macrocarpa. 
The 2001 Excursion will probably be to southern France at Whitsuntide. If you would like 
details of the GEP please contact Dr R. Viane, Dept. of Morphology, Systematics and 
Ecology, Section: Pteridology, K.L. Ledeganckstr. 35, B-9000 Belgium. 
E-mail:; Tel & Fax: +32-9-2645057. 


BBC GARDENERS' WORLD LIVE! - 14-18 June A.R. Busby 

It was very encouraging to arrive at our allotted space at the NEC, Birmingham and find 
that the staging was already prepared, enabling me to make an immediate start on 
furnishing the stand. I used a mixture of British fern varieties and foreign hardy ferns. 
Compared to other societies' stands, I feel that ours lacks that certain punch that would 
both inform the public and encourage interest. With the BPS Committee's agreement, I 
nope to prepare some suitable colourful posters for next year's show. 

The move to new Halls, announced in last year's report, seems to have been a move for the 
better from our point of view. The show is more compact and now enables visitors to 
circulate more easily. The previous layout tended to put the nurseries in a cul-de-sac which 
formedanannoying bottleneck. Another improvement is that the Halls are on the periphery 
of the NEC with a back road which gives access for exhibitors' vehicles to the Halls 
without coming into conflict with the denartine nuhlir Another «,^i 

lor the first hour of break-up only private cars are allowed in. This means that the amateur 

exhibitors can quickly load and get away before lorries start to fill the Halls. 

We still need more assistance with manning the stand. I cannot be there for the Wednesday, 

Thursday or Friday. Thankfully, local members come to my aid but I do feel that it is unfair 

tor the burden to fall on the same few every year. The NEC is well served by public 

transport and an extra few pairs of hands would be very welcome. 

My sincere thanks to Sue Pierce-Seary, Jeff Whysall, Alan Ogden, John and Margaret 

Collins and Maurice Green for giving their time to man the stand. 

SOUTHPORT FLOWER SHOW - 17-19 August A . R . Busby 

I arrived on Wednesday afternoon to find Victoria Park rather soggy which is not a good 
omen at Southport Show. By Thursday morning things had dried out somewhat and the 
weather proved to be mainly sunny. The only hiccup was rain over Thursday night which, 
hirgely due to compaction of the soil by Thursday's visitors, produced small lakes and a 
minor canal in the exhibition tent on Friday mornine 

1 garden urn sporting a superb plant of Polystichu 

Lawrence Kirkham arrived witl 

setiferum Tlumoso-divisilobum' and a large Rhododendron stump plm^d up with various 
hardy fems. Together with some 20 vases of cut fronds, these created a very attractive stand 
which solicited much favourable comment from passing visitors 

A notable event took place on Friday morning, when Brian Robinson i 
the son of Norman Robinson, a much respected member of our Sock 
(see Bulletin 1(4): 179 & 5(3): 137). Mr Robinson had called in with a 1 

I and a relatively cool s 

". 'Comubiense'. 
The judge was A.R. Busby. The prize winners are listed below. 
Class 6 [ndi p: Four hardy, two greenhouse and two 

ferns: 1st Mr & Mrs B. Russ. 2nd Mr I. Raw son (2 entries) 
Class 7 Three Hardy British I -ems (dissimilar): (no entries) 
Class 8 Three Hardy Foreign Ferns: 1st L. Kirkham. 2nd I. Ravvson (2eni 
Class 9 Three Polypodiwn (distinct varieties ): I st L. Kirkham ( 1 entry) 
Class 10 Three Polysticlutm (distinct varieties): 1st L. Kirkham ( 1 entry) 
Class 11 Three Athyrium: 1st L. Kirkham (1 entry) 

Class 12 Three Asplenium (excluding A. seolopendnum): 1st L. Kirkham ( 
Class 13 One British Fern (any kind or vanetv ): 1st L. Kirkham. 2nd I Raw 

3rd Mrs E.A. Gibbs (3 entries) 
Class 14 One Greenhouse Fern: 1st L. Kirkham, 2nd Mrs E.A. Gibbs, 3rd I. 

Class 15 Three Asplenium seolopendnum (3 distinct varieties): 1st L. Kirkli 
Lawrence and I would like to express our thanks to the following member 
trouble to make long journeys to see the show and spend a few minutes ch 
lullins, I. Gray, B. Russ and I. Unsworth. 

The dates for next year's show are 1 

We are always short of help on the stand so if any r 

would be very pleased to accept offers of help. 


n Fern Society. Regular membei 
er is published for the benefit ( 
"hunting for them, and expanding tl 
ferns. Journal members also receive the scientific qoarta 

Mexico! LcTuding 2 po P stI g e a for TirmTalsIted ddivery. For particulars please write to Dr David 
B. LelHnge, 326West It. NW. Vienna, VA 22180-4151, USA^Prospective members residing 
in Great Britain should write to Mr M.S. Porter, 5 West Avenue, Wigton, Cumbria CA7 9LG. 
AFS SUBSCRIPTION PAYMENTS: Our societies have an exchange ™^*^ 
members of the BPS can pay their AFS subscription through the BPS Membership Secretary and 
vice versa. Contact your Membership Secretary for details. 


ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 2001 - The 98th AGM will take place on Saturday 3rd 
March 2001 in the Gilmour Building, Cambridge Botanic Garden at 2.00 p.m. 
COMMITTEE VACANCIES - In accordance with paragraph 3, section 3 of the Society's 
Constitution, two vacancies will occur due to the retirement of the two longest serving 
Committee members. In addition, there are four unfilled vacancies. Nominations are invited 
from Society members to fill these vacancies at the Annual General Meeting in 2001. The 
names of the nominees, proposers and seconders, together with a letter from the nominee 
indicating his/her willingness to serve, should reach the General Secretary by 10th February 
2001 at the latest. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS 2001 - Members are reminded that subscriptions for 2001 are due on 
1st January 2001 and should be paid to the Membership Secretary, Mr M.S. Porter, 5 West 
Avenue, Wigton, Cumbria CA7 9LG. Cheques should be made payable to 'The British 
Pteridological Society'. Current rates are given inside the front cover of this issue. Payment 
can be made by Credit Card - see renewal form. Standing Order forms are printed on the 
reverse of renewal forms and are also available from the Membership Secretary and the 
BPS web site. Standing Orders may be paid on 1st January or 1st February. In either case, 
membership is deemed to be from 1 st January to 3 1 st December. 

PUBLICATIONS BY AIRMAIL - Our journals can be sent by airmail to overseas 
members, provided that they advise the Membership Secretary and pay an additional 
subscription to cover airmail postage. See inside front cover for rates. 
FUTURE PLANS FOR BPS DISCLAIMER - All members attending Society meetings 
should be aware of the Society's new Safety Code (see p. 275), as well as the Code of 
Conduct for the Conservation and Enjoyment of Wild Plants (see 1999 Bulletin 5(4):199), 
and will in the future be required to sign a Disclaimer form (currently being designed). 
GREENFIELD FUND - This fund, set up as a memorial to one of our Society's great fern 
growers, Percy Greenfield, is used to finance approved research projects, helping with the 
cost of necessary equipment, books and travel expenses. Percy Greenfield's interest leaned 
very much towards the non-scientific side of our activities and it is felt that he would want 
this taken into consideration when decisions are made. Workers eligible for university or 
college grants and similar support are not therefore eligible for help from the fund. Anyone 
wishing to avail themselves of this fund should contact the General Secretary for further 

CENTENARY FUND - This fund is used to promote the study of all aspects of 
ptendophytes - horticultural, scientific and educational, whether by amateurs, students or 
professional pteridologists. As such its scope is much broader and more flexible than the 
Oreenfield Fund. Anyone wishing to avail themselves of this fund should contact the 
General Secretary for further information. 

SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS - There are three Special Interest Groups. For further 
information please send a stamped addressed envelope to the organisers: 
Tree-ferns: Prof. A.C. Wardlaw, 92 Drymen Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 2SY. 
Foreign Hardy Ferns: A.R. (Matt) Busby, 16 Kirby Comer Road, Canley, Coventry CV4 8GD. 
tilmy Ferns: S.J. Munyard, 234 Harold Road, Hastings, East Sussex TN35 5NG 

INFORMATION SERVICE - Members often require information and 
• ™-ny aspects of pteridophytes but are reluctant to ask or simply do not know 
obtain help. Queries from members on any aspects of the biology, identification or 

READING CIRCLE - The Society operates a reading circle for the American Fern 

Journal, a quarterly publication containing much information for those seriously interested 

in ferns. The / es many 'ferny' items of interest to the 

amateur grower, accompanies it. To receive these journals contact A.R. Busby, 16 Kirby 

Corner Road, Canley, Coventry CV4 8GD. 


exchanges journals with many other fern societies in the world. We have a collection ol 

journals/newsletters from societies in the United States (3), Australia (5), New Zealand, 

India, Switzerland and the Netherlands. If members would like to browse these, they are 

welcome to get in touch with the back numbers organiser for a list o\ our holdings, [he 

journals can then be borrowed for just the cost of postage both ways. 

BACK NUMBERS OF JOURNALS - This year the Botanical Socien of the British Isles 

parted with the back issues of its journals for just the cost of postage because \ery tew 

members had availed themselves of them over the last thirty years. We do sell about LKH) 

worth of our old journals each year and if we had complete runs we could probabl) sell one 

or two of these a year. The prices are kept reasonably low under the philosoph} that the\ 

are better kept in the hands of the membership than in the loft ol the back numbers 

organiser! They are full of interesting data for the various interests of members. I am certain 

you would find something of interest to you. I have just taken a back run ol our sistei 

organisation's American Fern Journal and have been fascinated with both the history of the 

American Fern Society, especially the people and their love of ferns, and the gradual 

advancement of ideas this century. I cannot wait to fill in the gaps in my collection I hope 

our journals do not await the fate of the BSBI's of being recycled. Take a sample pack for 

just £5 or send for a list of back numbers from Patrick Acock. 13 Star Lane, St Mary Cray. 

Kent BR5 3LJ. P.J.A. 

WORLD-WIDE WEB SITE - The URL (address) of the BPS Web site hosted by The 

Natural History Museum is ' The content is regularly updated. 

See also article by our webmaster entitled 'eBPS' on p. 276. 

E-MAIL ADDRESSES - We plan to include e-mail adresses on the next BPS membership 

address list, [f you are on e-mail and are willing to have your address published, please send 

it to the Membership Secretary at: 

BPS VIDEO 'BRITISH FERNS' - This twenty-five minute video shows most of the 

native British ferns growing in their natural habitats. B demonstrates the wide variety of 

size and form to be found \n British ferns and the broad range of habitats they 

Attention is drawn to key identification characters to. each species. 

Schering Agriculture and the National Museum of Wales funded 

for loan to members and interested organisations for £3, to cover handling costs (UK ^ only,. 

For further details write to the General Secretary enclosing a stamped addressed envelope. 

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY - Our Society is affiliated to the iRHS, endting 

a limited number of members to enjoy certain privileges in connection with RHS Shows, 

competitions and services. 

BRITISH WILDLIFE - Concessionary individual subscriptions to British Wildlife 

magazine are available to BPS members. 

- out the Rules of Conduct for the 

PAYMENT OF EXPENSES - Documents setting 

■ (BPS/T/1), the Rules for Seeking 

Re-imbursement of Personal Travelling i 

Administrative Expenses by officers and members acting on behalf of the Society 
(BPS/T/2), and the Authorities for Payment (BPS/T/3) can be obtained from the Honorary 
Treasurer on request. 

COPYRIGHT - All contributors to the BPS journals and webpage are new cq :d to 
sign an agreement assigning ownership of copyright of the article, photograph etc. to the 
BPS. The adoption of this practice brings the BPS into line with other similar societies and 
has the aim of ensuring maximum international protection against infringement of 
copyright. In other words, it safeguards the contributors' work from unlawful copying and 
use. This is especially important with the increase in information disseminated 
electronically. It does not m> ing their own work elsewhere provided 

that they acknowledge the original source of publication. 

MERCHANDISE - Do you have a BPS sweatshirt and/or tee-shirt, or one of the new polo 
shirts? These are all dark green with a small BPS logo in yellow. Ties, metal badges, 
bookmarks and car stickers sporting our logo are also available. Other items for sale: 
greetings cards, postcards and notelets. Can't find your order form? Contact Mrs 
L.I. Craddock, 40 Russell Drive, Ampthill, Beds. MK45 2TX for details. Linda would also 
welcome suggestions for new stock. 

HELP FOR NEW MEMBERS - A leaflet is being prepared, principally for new members 
but probably of interest to some other members, explaining how help, advice and 
f pteridological interest. It is also intended 
o offer theoretical and practical help and 
guidance in one or more areas, such as growing ferns, identifying pteridophytes and the 

\ isitois into the Field to see pteridophytes in their local area. If you think you would like to 
be included, please contact the General Secretary. 

WANTED: ARCHIVIST - The Society urgently requires an archivist to actively maintain 
and enhance its collection of various archive materials, mainly photos, letters and a few 
sundry items. Further information is available from the General Secretary. 
WANTED; HELP WITH PUBLICATIONS - We need a technical editor to facilitate the 
flow of electronic information through the Societys' newsletters, journals and the web site, 
e.g. to convert newsletter format to web format, help with journal layout and production 
etc Assistance is also needed with the preparation of our ocasional Specail Publications 
and leaflets. This all involves a wide range of publishing, editing and design skills. Or do 
you have an aye for detail or are familiar with MS WORD? IF So, we would like you're 
help. If you think that you could help the Society in any of these ways (if you've found ten 
of the twelve mistakes in this paragraph you definatelycan help), please contact the 
Chairman of the Publications Subcommittee, Miss Josephine Camus, Botany Department, 
The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, teL. 020-7942-5587, 

needs volunteers to assist at the BBC Gardeners" World Live! and Southport Flower Show. 
You do not need to be an expert on ferns or fern growing, just prepared to spend a few 
hours or a day on the stand. Expenses are available and should be negotiated with 
A.R. Busby in the first instance. Further information is available from A.R. (Matt) Busby at 
16 Kirby Corner Road, Canley, Coventry CV4 8GD. 


MINUTES of the 97th Annual General Meeting held at the Chelsea Phy 

London on Saturday 25th March 2000 at 14.00 hours. 

IN THE CHAIR: The President, Mr M.H. Rickard. 

PRESENT: Mr R.G. Ackers, Mr P.J. Acock, Mr M. Amoy. MrS.M. And, 

A. Beaufoy, Mr C. Brotherton, Mr A.R. Busby, Miss J.M. Camus. Mr 

L.I. Craddoek, Mr A.J. Dickman, Mr G.Downey, DrM. Gibby. MrG.K. H 

J.M. Ide. Mrs. I. keyes. Mr A. Leonard. Mrs S. Lewis. Dr S.D. Martmelli. Miss 

Mr S. & Mrs K. Munyard, Mr A.H. Ogden. Mr B. (TShea. Miss A.M. 

M.S. Porter, Mr T. Pyner, Mr P.H. Ripley. Dr F.J. Rumsey. Dr C. Sanchez. Dr 

Fehre. Mr B.R. Stevenson, Mr F.A. Strang, Mr T.Taylor. Mr P. Temple. V 

M. Urquhart, DrT.G. Walker, Mr R.M. Walls, Prof. A.C. Wardlaw. MrG.H. > 

J.R. Woodhams, Mrs J. Yesilyurt. 

Item 1 - APOLOGIES FOR ABSENCE: Wg Cdr E.J & Mrs R Baker. Mi 

Mr J.A. Crabbe, Mr J. & Mrs M. Garstang. Dr N.J. Hards. Mr L. Kirkh; 

R.J. Murphy. Mrs M.E. Nimmo-Smith, Mr A.C. & Mrs M. Pigott. Mr R.J. & M: 

Prof. B.A. Thomas, Mr R.N. Timm, Mr B. & Mrs A. Wright. 

Item 2 - APPROVAL OF MINUTES: Minutes of the 96th Annual General N 

on 20th March 1999. published in the 1999 Bulletin (Volume 5. no. 4). wen 

(Note: The Minutes published in the Bulletin and approved at the meeting wei 

shortened version of the Minutes as recorded in the Minute Book.) 



Committee con 

fining a fe 

ork m the h 

as the> 

.ind. w 

;sidence. The 

3 meetings as 

it continued to 1 

look at van 

ous aspects 

of the.' 


/•s work. 

™ d ,:: 




attaining of C 

exercise the Co 

eatly. Altho 

■a:-:; :^ 

' proCt 

: ' 

isidered \er\ 

, the meaning 
: ,an> and the 

made. As a 
and impHcat 


result of the 



l> an appli 

egal & 


es o\ charity 



es. Cardiff. f« 

3 r advice and 

their reply was 


been found to u — "' "" ,flv ' 

N: Cei 



Society's Co 
for applicatic 

nstitution had 
in for Charity 

status. The Co. 
All these matte 




, at this AGM 
2 and the chat 

to approve these changes 


*" ::t 


he auditors, the Co 
, by the Treasurer. 

/?,,/<■.> of C, 

looked at the 
mdttct for the 

Treasurer of the British Ptendological Society (BPS/T/1), had been agreed. Similarly, 
Rules for Seeking Re-imbursement of Personal Travelling and Administrative Expenses 
(BPS/T/2) had been prepared and would be given to all new officers, committee members. 
appointees and others on official Society business. Both documents were available from the 
General Secretary. 

READING CIRCLE: Of the journals and newsletters received by the Society, only the 
American hern Journal and accompanying Fiddlehead Forum, and the Indian Fern 
Journal were considered to be worth circulating. A.R. Busby had agreed to continue» the circulation of the first two items. As postage tor the Indian Fern Journal 
would be considerable, it would not be circulated automatically, but specific issues could 
be requested. Other publications and newsletters received by the Society could be borrowed 
on request. 

ANNUAL FERN SHOW: The Committee had discovered that A.R. (Matt) Busby had 
personally carried the cos, f the prizes and any shortfall in the running costs of the annual 
Fern Show at Warwick University. This was felt to be untenable and the Committee agreed 
';;' '' jj () ' K ;" avaUable "P to £100 for prize money. This would 

,, ' ■ .. L , ( ° tX ra cl:i>M ' n-iiTowine fern 

enthusiast. Hopefully, this would also increase the popularity of the Show to members 

I he presence of Uk : BPS at Flower Shows is very effective in attracting new members. The 
' , M V ; h ? ' K Societj annuall) had a presence were the Southport Flower Show 

m August and the BBC Gardeners' World Live! at the NEC Birmingham in June. 
A.R. Busby also felt that the Malvern Shows were worth Society presence, however, he had 

oun tut the distance for him to travel was too great. Members were encouraged to offer 
an bus stands a, these shows and also, either individually or as groups, to include 

•-KK at local shows m their own area. If members w , ,,,'„. services or 

to no, more about what is involved, they should contact A.R. Busby, or L. Kirkham who 
had kindly taken over the responsibility for the Society's stand at Southport Show. 
The Committee wished to thank Matt for all his enthusiasm and hard work in organising 

irsitsaSri^r and o,her shows - - aiso <° - *- 

? 5 nf W n Y , FUND: T1 ' e Ce " amy FUnd T ™ StteS had *- Pleased to make an award of 

x>. bpeer to attend the 1 999 International Bracken Conference in Manchester. 
11 me extreme valae of the Society's first Minute Book, which covers the period from the 
founding of the Society .„ 189!. through to ,983. B. Wright had kind y undertaken ne , sk 
of scanning the hook onto a CD-ROM. This was being done principal TZ Tchiva 
CD-ROM h U ' r UbliCa f " S *»«— *- - » consider two prX £r U , t h 
MimiKBook he Jl h ^ Sak '° memberS Md ' Seco " dl " *« extracts from the 
Minute Book be published on the Internet. The Committee wished to exnress iis than! t, 

K "ot for Trtr ,h,s fomidabk task - ^ S EX TZm „ TbS 

fie f box M , reCeiV6d " y tHe COrami " ee ™ S that adMd ° ox °' so - lled 

fire-safe-box would not ultimately protect the book from an intense fire. 

Z C U nZ E tJ!!-. COr r ne \T CU,Ten "y Seeki "S lhe ad ™e of a professional archivist 

5 Society's archives. Although the Committ, 

e Had yet to find a suitable deposit for 
uone on existing material, such as databasing 
volunteer was required to seek, collect and collate newspaper and 
subjects of interest to the Society. Anyone wishing to volunteer, or 
< before deciding to volunteer, should contact the General Secretary. 

PATRON: M.H. Rickard, our President, reported that the collection of ferns for HRH The 
Prince of Wales had been delivered to the Prince's home, Highgrove, and the tree-ferns had 
been planted under his supervision. The ground ferns were potted up and should have been, 
or would be shortly, planted out. 

SARAJEVO BOTANIC GARDEN APPEAL: The Society responded to an appeal for 
books and journals for Sarajevo Botanic Garden, which lost its Library during the fighting 
in Bosnia. There was a pteridologist at the Garden and a set of Gazettes, from Volume 1 2 to 
the present, and a full set of Pteridologists had been donated in support of the Garden. 
FINALLY, A CALL TO ARMS! If there was one thing that the trip to New Zealand had 
confirmed, it was that ferny folk are amongst the friendliest and most helpful one could 
find anywhere in the world. The BPS is no exception, and the General Secretary wished to 
encourage members to consider repaying some of the friendship and help that they have 
received, by helping in some way with the Society's activities. The AGM would contain 
several appeals for help and others either already have or else would appear in the Bulletin. 
There had been some responses to past appeals, for which we are grateful, but more were 
required to ensure that the Society could provide the services and programme that members 
desired. Individual members might wish to respond either by undertaking a task or perhaps 
by sharing a task with another member. Members who felt they could not help the Society 
directly might be able to encourage an interest in ferns through their local natural history 
societies, gardening clubs, or school or college activities. One thing was certain, whatever 
members decide to do, they could be assured of willing advice and encouragement from 
officers and other members of the Society. 

Item 5 - REPORT OF THE HONORARY TREASURER: Mr A. Leonard presented the 
unaudited accounts for the year ending 31st December 1999. He had no further comments 
to add to the notes given with the accounts. 

The accounts were approved, subject to auditing. Proposed by Dr M. Gibby, and seconded 
by Dr F.J. Rumsey. 

that the membership database had been converted to a new system at a minimal cost of 
approximately £70. E-mail addresses would be included in the next membership address 
list, so members would be asked to supply Mike with their addresses. 
The sending of reminders to members who failed to pay their subscriptio: 

was both time consuming for the Membership Secretary a 

- Society. The 

from 2000, members paying by Standing Order should be given 

the option of paying on January 1st or February 1st. It was hoped that for some members 
this would alleviate the problem of having so many subscriptions due at the beginning of 
me year and would also encourage more members to arrange Standing Orders for the 
payment of their subscriptions. 

Membership stood at 767 an increase of 7 on last year's figures. At the end of 1999 there 
were 573 'Ordinary' members 56 Family members, 35 Honorary/Complimentary members, 
12 Student members and 90 Subscribers. During 1999, 5 members had died, 19 resigned 
and 50 lapsed. However, these losses were more than balanced by the encouraging total of 
8 1 new members, who joined often as a result of recommendation by fnends or following a 
visit to a Flower Show where the Society was represented. An appreciable number of 
members joined after seeing the Society's web site. Of the 19 members who resigned, only 
one did so on the grounds of dissatisfaction with the Society's programme, all *e^thers 
were a result of illness, lack of mobility or changes 
Unfortunately a comparatively large number of n 

i paid for a complete year and no official 
notification of resignation had been received.) It must be assumed that reasons for lapsing 
are the same as those for resignations, although inertia might also be a significant element! 
A short discussion on 
subscriptions and rem 
Membership Secretary's 

BIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN WORK: Introductions of Woodsia ilvensis, 
by the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh and funded by English Nature and Scottish 
Natural Heritage, had proceeded according to plan, and the wet summer of last year helped 
with the initial establishment of sporelings. Further re-introduction work was planned for 
two sites during 2000. 

Work, co-ordinated by Plantlife, had also begun on identifying the locations of all pillwort 
and marsh clubmoss sites in England. Further work would concentrate on identifying 
suitable management of their preferred habitats, usually of heathland in the lowlands. 
Curiously, most of the scarce wildlife found on heathland was dependent upon bare ground; 
in the ease of pillwort and marsh clubmoss, they both preferred open damp ground which 
was tree from competition from other more vigorous species. 
NEW LEGISLATION: It would be of interest to members 
and Rights of Way Bill, was passing through Parliame 
significantly stronger protection to SSSIs and rare species. 
CODE OF CONDUCT: This was published last year by BSBI, with input from the BPS, 
and a summary was published in last year's Bulletin. This Code outlined what the botanical 
conservation societies believed to be reasonable and responsible practice for the members, 
and pointed out the legal framework within which we must all act. Members were strongly 
encouraged to read and adhere to this code whenever they were in the field. 
BETTER CO-ORDINATION: A three-year post was soon to be recruited, working in The 
Natural History Museum and funded by English Nature. This post would improve co- 
ordination between the British Pteridological, Bryological, Phycological and Lichen 
Societies and Plantlife. English Nature and The Natural History Museum, to ensure that the 

mieer eriort which these societies could muster was tai 
effectively, for example in surveys tor specific species, or surveys in particular parts of the 
country. This should ensure that the vast number of records collected will find their way 
into the various recording schemes, and that feedback from the schemes will be made more 
readily available to the members of the societies. 
Item 8 - SUBCOMMITTEE (Permanent) REPORTS: 

8.1 - Meetings Subcommittee: The Meetings Secretary, Mr P.J. Acock, reported that 
the meetings in 1999 had met with a mixed response as regards numbers although only 
favourable reports had been received with regard to content. The Spring Indoor Meeting 
and AGM at Reading were well attended and enjoyed. The Kew meeting, usually the best 
attended meeting of the year, drew far fewer members than normal despite the opportunities 
to visit unusual places. The field meeting to Priddy in Somerset was fairly well attended 
and all enjoyed the range of habitats the leaders had chosen. Saville Gardens in Windsor 
Great Park drew a range of people from far and wide to view mam beautiful plants in a 
woodland setting. The annual fern show had been poorly attended and this was 
disappointing for Matt Busby, the organiser, who had persevered to provide an enjoyable 

day at a centrally located venue. It musl also foi \\a\i\ and Sue 

Olsen who had travelled all morning in order to give a preview of the tern excursion to he 
based in Seattle during 2003. On the Isle of Man there were onl) Four participants, 
thankfully boosted with a few enthusiastic islanders. Wensleydalc had been very well 
attended and Barry Wright was to be thanked for his excellent preparation of both the field 
trips and the evening microscopy sessions. The last indoor meeting saw the Natural HistOT) 
Museum staff put on an excellent day. Members who came did not want to leave, however, 
numbers were again disappointing at 18. 

The Secretary thanked the Subcommittee and all those people who had led meetings 
throughout 1999. Their commitment to the Society was appreciated. It was maink through 
their efforts that the Society maintained and would preserve a lasting interest in terns. 
Although all societies need their armchair members and are grateful for their support in 
other ways, it was disappointing to the Meetings Subcommittee and to the benevolent 
people they chose to lead meetings, when there was a dearth of interest. Huge numbers 
might present logistical problems but a few more members attending day events would 
;. Members were invited to hear this plea. 

. Camus, the Acting Chairman, reported 
st AGM. 

and Editors', which had p 

brought to the Society's 

copyright agreement 

the Society and contributors 

publications (hard copy and electronic). Legal advice was being sought i 

2. The need for all publications to be produced by up-t. 
copies kept at least on diskette and preferably on CD. A tec 

3. Indexing. The Society had been very fortunate that three people 
for each journal. Indexing was a very complex task and L 
recommended a meeting for all concerned with a presentation from a suitable pers 
the Society of Indexers. 

SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS: It had been ten years since the issue of the = last : Special 

Publication. The Subcommittee had resolved that a publication every two years ; shou J* 

aimed for, but more volunteers - a managing editor, volume editors pro of re* to and 

authors - were desperately needed. If members thought they could help, they should con 

Mtss J.M. Camus. [Department of Botany, The Natural History Museum Cromwell Road. 

London SW7 5BD; tel.: 020 7942 5587, e-mail:] 

Hall and Packard's bibliography of pre-1900 fern books should be £>j*"^ 

Progress had been set in train towards the publication of Dyce s work on Pohsnchum 

varieties in a few year's time. 

8-2.1 - Bulletin: The Editor, Miss A.M. Paul, reporte d that ^^J^.^J^^ 

years the Bulletin had been published on schedule. She thanked all who had assisted 

achieving this by sending in their reports and photographs in good time. 

Tne first report for the 2000 Bulletin had been received and it was hoped that^other 

contributors would produce their reports as promptly. Alison reminded members that, as 

always, photographs taken during meetings would be appreciated. There was the possibility 

of additional photographs being put up on the Society's web site, thus even more 

photographs from members would be welcome. 

8.2.2 - The Fern Gazette: On behalf of both Editors, Miss J.M. Camus reported that 

two issues of The Fern Gazette, parts seven and eight of Volume 15, comprising six papers 

and five book reviews, were published in 1999. 

The Editors were very grateful to the Computer Graphics Department of The Natural 

History Museum for assistance in streamlining the production of this journal, which had 

resulted in considerable saving of both the Editors' time and the Society's money. 

The Society was very fortunate to have been offered help by Dr Dave Flanagan, Harrogate, 

who was compiling the index to Volume 15. This should be ready to be mailed with the 

second issue of The Fern Gazette in 2000. 

currently in various stages of the refereeing/editorial process for 
publication. One of these was the direct result of information displayed on the Society's 
web page. The start of a new volume brought the opportunity for making various changes to 
the style of The Fern Gazette, some of which had been discussed at the last AGM. Hazel 
Sims, a professional graphic designer, had produced a new cover design to project the 
journal's image as a serious and quality scientific publication. 

It had been discovered that The Fern Gazette was not covered by a major indexing and 
abstracting organisation called The Institute for Scientific Information Inc. (ISI, available 
on-line through BIDS (Bath Information and Data Services). ISI had asked for a trial free 
subscription of The Fern Gazette for four issues. The Committee had agreed to this. 
8.2.3 - Pteridologist: No report had been received. 

8.2 4 - WORLD WIDE WEB Site: The Editor, Mr A.C. Pigott, reported that the web site 
had been further developed this year with additions including extracts from the Society's 
papers of 1899 and 1900, more Fern Gazette abstl n the Societv 

itself, membership forms and a 'What's New?' page. A number of technical i 

A professional website editing and management suite, GoLive 4 by Adobe, had been 
acquired and would enable the publication of new material with improved visual quality, 
and for it to be done with less effort, which meant that more could be done, and done faster. 
Ihe editor was still seriously short of good material to use on the web site. Members were 
EssenTJw * T"* ** ^ * ^ th °^ ht ^ mi § ht be ab,e t0 C ° ntribUte - 
e^Sis^rten^ *" * ^ *" ^ ~ — * ^ 

wuld sZt Pla H f0 ? 0me neW and eXCitin § additions to the Bp S web presence. These 

it fulfi L > Ca l % Ce th£ ViSlbiHty of the Societ y ™d ^en radically question the way 

nd Ite ^t^eBPsTn "* ^ ** * membershi P" These ideas were being dealt with 

the title eBPS and were being discussed with the Publications Subcommittee. 

readXtcVa nf ■ T ** ^ U " had been ^ ^ "** en-bled BPS members to 
readily exchange information about Society matters. 

me e rin F 19^9 VARIETIES N ° MENCLATlJRE SUBCOMMITTEE: The Subcommittee did not 

pecbve turnover of around 

to funding had been sought from Hnghsh Nature. The first 
circular had been produced and distributed, and around 150 recipients had responded to 
request the second circular. The scientific programme was mulct construction. A BPS held 
meeting in the Southern Lake District had been scheduled to follow the symposium to 
enable delegates to attend should they so wish. 

10.1 -BOOKSALES: Mr S. Munyard reported that 199° had been anothci bus> >ear. He had 
obtained two private collections, which had totalled nearly NX) titles. This had caused a 
delay in producing the Booksales list for which he apologised The possibility ol earning 
stock of CD-ROM tern titles was being investigated. 

10.2 - MERCHANDISE: Mrs L. Craddock reported that sales in 1999 had increased b> I.V, 
compared to 1998, so were now going in the right direction. She thanked the Committee lor 
taking on board the possibility ot additional items. Polo shirts, tee-shirts, sweat-shuts and 
bookmarks were now available. It was possible that mugs and other items would follow . 
Hopefully, renewed interest and enthusiasm would result' The merchandising continual to 
run smoothly and Linda was prepared to earn on for another year lugging merchandise 
around the country and sending it around the world! 

10.3 - PLANT EXCHANGE: Mr R. and Mrs B. Smith reported that the September 1W Iim 
was better than average, with generous oilers oi leins. eqin>ctums atui ..(Uiui/n 
interest all tastes. Fifty plus members had applied lor a cops ol the list. Most gratetul 
thanks were extended to the donors who 

successful. Anyone with even three or lour plants to spare was encouraged to considci 
contributing. How ever, it w as not necessary to have ferns to offer in order to participate. 

10.4 - Spore Exchange: Mr B. and Mrs A. Wright reported tl 
to be a popular service, with 154 requests being received m,\ p 
from non-UK members, affirming the international nature ol ill 
flush of requests, there had been the anxious wait for tresh stocl 

f, ' l, m 40 donors. Hach year there were normally 20-30 new taxa 

donations to fulfil the requests. Any amount of aspleniu 

ferns were always needed. The Spore Ex< ' 

members to donate spores. Even if the spec 

grower or collector, someone elsewhere in t 

members were not expected to send in tens i 

Packet this would go a long way to maintaining s 

receive the full extra allocation of t 

different taxa should be donated. 

Woodsia alpina spores, this rule m,,ht be ignored in gratitude! 


eight requests for information, covering a wide selection of topics on ferns 

it be ver 

k grateful U^ 

u. \i 

\a. If eac 

-nt in a 

stocks. Ho 


lat a minimu 

m ol ti 

f someone 

sent in ; 

i couple of 



growing, had been received. About half of the requests for information were from non- 
concerned where to obtain hardy ferns, but there had been one long letter asking for 
information on building a fernery and a phone call on restoring a fernery. 
had received no reports and the President invited Group Organisers to comment from the 
floor. There was no response; reports had been published in the 1999 Bulletin. 
The en bloc adoption of the reports given under items 4 to 1 1 inclusive was proposed by Mr 
J.R. Woodhams and seconded by Mr P.H. Ripley. The proposal was carried unanimously. 
Item 12 - CHANGES TO THE CONSTITUTION: As reported by the General Secretary 
under item 4 above, the Committee had felt that some changes to the Constitution were 
necessary. The proposed changes had been circulated with the last Bulletin. 
The Committee felt it prudent to ask the Society to agree the addition of the words "through 
publications, meetings and grants", to the end of Item 2, OBJECTS, of the Society's 
Constitution, so that it would read: "The objects of the Society are to promote and 
encourage the cultivation of ferns and other pteridophytes and to further the study of their 
taxonomy, distribution, conservation and ecology through publications, meetings and 

Although the Membership Secretary and Conservation Officer were attending Committee 
Meetings, they had no voting rights. It was felt that this was an anomaly and that the 
holders of these offices should be ex-officio full members of the Committee. It was also 
decided that the position of holders of Committee Appointments, such as the Booksales and 
Spore Exchange Organisers, vis-a-vis the Committee should be made clear. To this end the 
following changes had been proposed to Item 3, MANAGEMENT: 

i. First Sub-paragraph to be replaced with: "The Officers of the Society shall consist of a 
President, up to six Vice-Presidents, a General Secretary, a Treasurer, the Editors of the 
Society's regular publications comprising the Bulletin, the Fern Gazette, the Pteridologist, 
the Society's World Wide Web Site, a Membership Secretary, a Meetings Secretary and a 
Conservation Officer. All posts being honorary. " 

ii. The last word of the second Sub-paragraph to be replaced with: "Officers of the Society " 
iii. After the second Sub-paragraph insert additional Sub-paragraph as follows: "Any 
Holders of Committee appointments, such as Spore Exchange Organiser, Plant Exchange 
Organiser, Booksales Organiser, or Archivist, who are not also either an elected Officer of 
the Society or an elected Member of the Committee, will be eligible to attend Committee 
Meetings but will have no voting rights. " 

iv. The fourth sentence of the existing third Sub-paragraph to be amended as follows: delete 
"The Honorary General Secretary, Honorary Treasurer, Editors and Meetings Secretary". 
Replace with: "All other Officers of the Society". 

proposed by Mr A.R. Busby, seconded by Miss 


Before beginning the election of officers, the President thanked J.R. Woodhams, who had 
come to the end of his term of office as a Vice-President, for his service to the Society. 
John had been the Society's link with the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, for many years 
, and for many years he organised the annual BPS meeting 
vife Joan, they provided the afternoon tea at Professor Holttum's home 

2 Professor 

B getting on in years and continued to provide tea \ 

The serving Officers of the Society were all eligible for re-election and had indicated their 

willingness to stand. It was proposed by S.D. Martinelli and seconded by A.R. Busby, that 

the officers be re-elected. The vote was unanimously in favour. 

Wg Cdr E.J. Baker and Mrs M.E. Nimmo-Smith were retiring as elected Committee 

Members, being the two longest serving members, and Miss R.J. Murphy was resigning 

because of eyesight difficulties. The President thanked them for their loyal service and was 

especially saddened that Rose Murphy had found it necessary to resign as she had made 

very positive contributions at Committee meetings. He wished her all the best lor the 

future. Mr M.S. Porter, because of the changes to the Constitution agreed at this meeting, 

was now an ex officio member of the Committee by virtue of his position as Membership 

Secretary. There were already two vacancies on the Committee, so the total numba ol 

vacancies was now six. Two nominations had been received before the meeting Mi 

R.G. Ackers, proposed by M.H. Rickard. seconded by J.M. Ide. and Dr S.I). Martinelli. 

proposed by P.J. Acock and seconded by P.H. Ripley. There were no nominations from the 

floor and R.G. Ackers and S.D. Martinelli were elected unanimously. 

Item 14 - ELECTION OF AUDITORS: R.G. Ackers had offered his resignation as an 

auditor and the President thanked him for his service during the past tour scars. I'll Ripk } 

had indicated his willingness to continue as an auditor and was duly re-elected. There was 

no nomination to replace R.G. Ackers. 


a. The President congratulated Dr Mary Gibby on her a PP°^ ntm ^ nt a 

the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh and hoped V ' ' 


The President, on behalf of the Society, expressed his 

thanks to Dr Gibby and her 

associates for arranging the meeting at Chelsea Physic 

■ arranging 
business, he thanked 
approximately 15.15 hoi 

Garden. There being i 

declared the 

Jennifer ! 

Hon. Gen. Secretary 

Notes to the Accounts brackets y hem 

1. The Society had the following stocks of books at 31.12. 1999 M ^ ^ ]™,^, ^] )t \ 
Names and their Meaning 1 73 ( 1SS ,_ ;u , 

History of British Pteridology 834 (841), BPS Extracts and Papers 437 (439). 

2. The accounts reflect the subscriptions actually received in the yean 
The actual number of subscribers was very similar ,n 1998 and 1999. 

3- BPS Booksales had assets of £5,738.33 (£5,159.97) at 31.12.1999. ^ 
4. The Centenary Fund had 177 (179) copies of A World of Ferns at 31.12.1 

1 999 International Bracken Conference in Manchester v se 
7 c At thP RPS trip to New Zealand using the BPS credit car 

/• Several foreign participants paid for the urs \uv 

fecUit) This resulted in no overall cost to the BPS. 







Spore Exchange 


Plant Sale 

New Zealand Trip 








Printing & Stationery 


Plant & Spore Exchanges 



Mapping Project 

New Zealand Trip 




Special Interest Groups 




BALANCE for 1999 


Brought forward from 1998 


Carried forward at 31.12.1999 

World of Ferns 

Carried forward at 31.12.1999 


Brought forward from 1998 

Carried forward at 31.12.1999 


Special Publication No. I 
Special Publication No. ■ 
Special Publication No. i 
Special Publication No. i 
Carried forward at 31.1 

Doryopteris - A Grant from the Centenary Fund 

my fieldwork in Brazil. 
I have been working on my PhD project entitled: 'A systematic survey of the genus 
Doryopteris J.Sm. (Pteridaceae, Pteridophyta)', under the guidance of Dr A. Culham (The 
University of Reading), Dr Mary Gibby (Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh) and Miss 
Josephine Camus (The Natural History Museum, London). Doryopteris is primarily a 
Brazilian genus: 21 of the 22 neotropical species are found in Brazil, ten of which are 
endemic. Most studies which refer to Doryopteris are limited in scope to the general 
systematic aspects of the genus. The difficulty in establishing reasonable subgeneric limits 

are distinguished by only a few critical characters. This unsettled taxonomy is attributed to 
using only traditional morphological criteria. 
In my study, phylogenetically informative mo 

It took some months for me to arrange my trip and plan the fieldwork. I had to prepare a 
budget, use references and information from existing herbarium collections to plan the 
itinerary, obtain permission to collect, assemble materials for preparation of the samples. 
make arrangements with the guides and for car rental. This was to be my second field trip in 
south-east Brazil, around Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. 

There were, however, factors beyond my control that left me feeling quite anxious. La Nina 
phenomenon had caused havoc in large parts of Brazil: the constant rain caused widespread 
floods, many roads had been closed and thousands of people became homeless. As a result, 
I had to postpone my fieldwork to June 2000. 

Once again, early in 2000, I made all the preparations. Fortunately I was awarded a 
'conservation' return air ticket by British Airways. However, I was still worried about the 
weather, as there was a forecast that the winter would be the driest for five years. 
Unfortunately, this proved to be correct and, once again, plans had to be amended. We 
travelled about 3,000km searching for Doryopteris. As a result of the unusual!) di> u inter 
we travelled through a landscape that was difficult to recognise: everything had turned 
brown, the suffering of nature (drought) made worse by fires. Most species of Doryopteris 
are rupicolous, i.e. they grow in rock crevices, and as the streams dried up. so did the terns 
Most botanists worry about drying specimens in 
the field, but I had to soak the plants to get the 
fronds to open out again before I could press 


I should, however, give the happy news: despite 
the adverse conditions I found about seven 
species of Doryopteris, some of which I had not 

The Fund helped to cover some of my expenses 
during this trip. I would also like to take this 
opportunity to thank Dr Jefferson Prado and 
P. Labiak for their help during this fieldwork. 

Jovita Cislinski Yesilyurt 



Once again I must report that I have not been able to get the next edition of the Newslette 
out. Several new members have expressed an interest during the year and their names hav 
been added to the list. I will do my best to get something out in the near future. If anyon 
would be interested in taking over as Organiser of the Foreign Hardy Fern Group / Editor o 
the Newsletter I would he p lila et me. 


ii tree-ferns, continues to develop hand in hanc 
iting plants at many garden centres in the L 
including our own President! Also the anni 
r those prepared for the long haul from spore t 

I em Special Interest Group continues t 

A.C. Wardlaw 

dening availability of 
s from the specialist 
e list contains many 
;-fern. The BPS Tree- 

: its membership, which now s 

of Britain. Six Tree-Fern Newslet 

since the start of the Group in 1995, with 
the seventh expected by the end of 2000. 

dealt with the cultivation and winter- 
protection of tree-ferns, and with visits to 
tree-ferny places. For the Convenor the 
principal problem is persuading the 
membership to submit pictures, or 
accounts of their experiences with tree- 
ferns, for the Newsletter, but hopefully 
this will improve with time. There is also 
the question of whether Newsletter 
articles about tree-ferns would be better 
placed, or reproduced, in the 
Pteridologist, so as to benefit a larger 
1 ,ae readership. Those of us who live in 

and Britain should be aware that we are 

privileged in our access to mature 

ferns, imported from the Southern Hemisphere. In the 
xsize tree-ferns, e.g. from Australia, is virtually 

of Agriculture restrictions. There is much still to be 

specimens of several species of 
USA, by contrast, the importation of 
impossible because 
learned about the cultivation 

So^t in thCir r iVC ,andS ' bUt ;iS ° * * ^^^VyZ. Q 
these questions can be expected to emerge from the BPS Tree-Fern Special In 

Enquiries and contributions to Alastair C. Wardlaw 9^ 
G61 2SY. E-mail: 


Unfortunately, due to other c 

2 Drymen Road, Bearsden, Glasgow 

Anyone else interested in joi 
Road. Hastings. East Sussex 


of the British Pteridological Society 

As adopted at the AGM 27 September 1961 {with amendments 1972. 1975. 1983 an 

1. NAME The Society shall be called "The British Pteridological Society". 

2. OBJECTS The objects of the Society are to promote and encourage the cull 
ferns and other pteridophytes and to further the study of their taxonomy, di 
conservation and ecology tl 

3. MANAGEMENT The Officers of the Society shall c 
Vice-Presidents, a General Secretary, a Treasurer, the 1 
publications ct 

World Wide Web Site, a Membership Secretary, 
Conservation Officer. All posts being honorary. (Octobt 
The Management of the Society shall be in the hands o 

shall have 1 

Assistants t 

Publications. {October J 972, March 2000) 

Any Holders of Committee appointments, such as Spore Exchange Orgai 

Exchange Organiser. Booksales Organiser, oi Aichivist. who are not alsi 
elected Officer of the Society or an elected Member of the Con 

ings but will have no voting rights. (March 2' ><><>> 

The President shall be elected at an Annual General Meeting and 
three years and on retirement shall not be eligible for immediate t 
Presidents shall be elected at an Annual General Meeting and ren 
years. On retirement they shall not be eligible for re-election. All i 
Society shall be elected at the Annual General Meeting z 
next Annual General Meeting when they s" 
Members of the Committee shall be elected 
remain in office until the next Annual General Meeting wh 
eligible for re-election with the exception of the two membe 
who shall not be eligible for re-election untD after the lapse c 
there being more than two members t 

I signed and agreed ti 

i held, and n 

> of the 

ibers of the Committee for the being in the United Kingdom shall be as valid and effectual as if it had been 
passed at a meeting of the Committee duly called 

Nominations for Offices and members of >he Committee must normally be received by 
the Honorary General Secretary twenty-one days before the Annnal General Mee.tng. 
MEETINGS The Annnal General Meeting of the Society shall be held *J rachdme 

and place as the Committee may 

decide for the purpose c 

An Extraordinary General illed by the Honorary General Secretary 

within thirty days of receiving a request in writing of the Committee or of not less than 
twenty members stating the purpose for which such a meeting is required. 
At least twenty-one days notice of any General Meeting shall be given to all members. 
5. NOTICES The accidental omission to give notice of a meeting to, or the non-receipt 
of notice of a meeting by, any member shall not invalidate any proceedings or 
i meeting of the Society or any Committee thereof except in the case 

payable by members shall be payable in advance, and due on the First of January in 
each year, or on the election of the members. The rates of subscription shall be fixed by 
a General Meeting from time to time. (October 1975) 

7. HONORARY MEMBERSHIP The Committee may elect any person or persons to 
Honorary Membership of the Society. Honorary Members shall be entitled to all the 
privileges of membership, but shall not be liable for payment of any subscription. 

8. REMOVAL FROM MEMBERSHIP Any member failing to pay his subscription 
within six calendar months of its becoming due shall be liable to have his name 
removed from the List of Members of this Society. 

Any member whose conduct in the opinion of the Committee is prejudicial to the 
interests of the Society may be removed from membership by a two-thirds majorit) 
vote of those present at a meeting of the Committee on the Agenda of which the words 
"Removal of a Member" shall have appeared; provided no member may be so removed 
unless due notice has been sent to the member of the intention of the Committee to 

proceed undei 

i charges made and £ 

been afforded of answering such charges to the satisfactic 
member so removed shall forfeit any claim upon the Society. 

10. ALTERATION TO RULES This Constitution may be altered as follows: 

Any proposal for alteration or addition to this Constitution shall be in writing, and shall 
be signed by two members, and be deposited with the Honorary General Secretary not 
loss than thirty days before the Annual General Meeting. Such alteration or addition 
shall be included in the Agenda of that meeting and circulated to all members and shall 
not be carried unless the votes of two-thirds of the members present at the meeting are 

1L DISSOLUTION The Society may be dissolved by a vote of at least three-quarters 
majority of those present and voting at an Extraordinary General Meeting called for that 
purpose and if an effective resolution for dissolution is passed the surplus funds and 
property of the Society shall be disposed of to an agreed charitable organisation of 

British Ptehidological Society Safety Code 

In common with other scientific and natural history societies, the BPS has drawn up a 
safety code for its meetings, in particular field meetings. Every meeting leader will have a 
copy for consultation by participants but every participant should read the code and take the 
appropriate responsible action for each meeting he or she attends. 

PARTICIPATION IN MEETINGS The BPS will, through the meeting leader, at the 
beginning of the meeting, draw the attention of participants to the points behm. h ts the 

The following points are particularly important in taking ultimate responsibility for your 

1. Ensure that you are adequately clothed and equipped. 

2. Never leave the main party without notifying the leader of your plans. 

3. Pay particular attention to the hazards of the terrain and their potential danger, as a result 
of your actions, to others. For example, be careful not to dislodge loose stones and 

4. Do not rock-climb without experience and the proper equipment. 

5. Do not damage walls, fences, hedges, gates, etc. 

6. Leave gates open/shut as the party finds them. 

7. Take care not to start a fire. 

8. Familiarise yourself with the procedure to adopt in the event of an accident in the field. 
CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT Always carry windproof and waterproof outer clothing 
and wear suitable footwear, e.g. walking boots or, in certain circumstances, Wellingtons. AH 
clothing should be suitable for the job (e.g. jeans not re T^^exttii^ 
of emergency. A first-aid kit is also advisable. 

In mountains, the following are necessary: 

1 • Two warm, long-sleeved sweaters of wool or similar material. 

2. Properly fitting walking or climbing boots with commando-type or Vibram so es _*om 
over suitable woollen socks. Footwear should be waterproof but Wellingtons should not 

3. AiuckLc with spare sweater and (if not being worn) anorak/cagoule and over-trousers. 

4. A whistle, compass, maps, torch, first-aid kit. 

5. A survival bag if more than Vi-hour from the nearest inhabited place. 
At all outdoor meetings, it is worth considering carrying an em 

They can be obtained, for approximately £3, from retail outlets so jng»j 
clothing and equipment. They are very light (c.85 g) and occupy ver> 
be rendered at once, and medical and relief help sh< 

of exposure is almost always I «, a windproof 

but if a case is suspected the initial uc me, . ; uk ^ toQ± such as 

or waterproof outer garment, plus mgest on ot a source or rap . 

sugar or glucose in solid or liquid form, preferably hot hqui . 


Six long flashes/blasts/shouts/waves in succession, repeate a ^ 

Manchester University. Booth; I ast. Mam i^ter. Ml- »"- ^^.^ 
(Adapted from the Safety Code of the British Bnolog, 


The BPS has recently been making important advances in the way it uses new 
communications technology to further its aims and run the Society. In addition to the web 
site, which we started in 1997. we now increasingly use e-mail, along with other computer 
and Internet facilities in the everyday running of the Society. Many members will be aware 
ol much of this, but we thought it worth summarising what's been going on to make sure 
everyone was up to date. We call these initiatives eBPS (electronic BPS). 
1 make no apology for encouraging the BPS into all this new technology - I see it as the 
means of keeping; the Nouet> ali\e and relevant. Like most of you I expect, I love the 
timeless, peaceful qualities of ferns. I also love to feel the fine ink printing of a Victorian 

centuiA. should not also be firmh rooted in both the 19th and the 21st. 

Domain Names and E-mail Addresses 

The main BPS web site is now accessible by the name Although most 

of the BPS site is still physically located on the Internet server computer at the Natural 

History Museum, the use of this name, or URL, means that we can quote and publish 

■' in the knowledge that this will always be our address, irrespective o\ 

remember and type than ''. 

Having the domain name also enables the Society to have its own permanent 
e-mail addresses for the various officers, groups and activities. These can be redirected to 
the relevant personal e-mail addresses of the people currently responsible. Again, this 
enables us to publish those e-mail addresses m journals, etc., knowing that they will stay up 
to date. For example we have '' (redirected to Jennifer Ide) and 
'' (redirected to Barry Wright). 

We have also registered a number of other domain names, mainly for future use. It's 
important on the Internet to have distinctive and memorable names, especially where we 
«ant to attract the attention of people who know little or nothing about either the BPS or 
pteridophytes. It also makes it easier to structure the public access to our web site(s). b\ 
gn mg distinct names to sub-sections of the whole, e.g. '" points to 
the Fern Gazette front page ''. We also have a 'dot com' 

The BPS Web Site 

The BPS web site, 'Fern World Wide Web' has now grown to 45 pages, with 256 files and 
about lOMbytes of storage. We have been receiving an average of 20 visitors a day, which 
may not sound many but is quite good for a small specialist society. Now that the new address is established, we will increase our efforts to 'advertise' our presence 
and ensure that the Internet search engines reach us. 

We have tried hard to produce a good quality site, making it attractive and -professional', 
avoiding the all-too-frequent gaudy colours" and flashing images seen elsewhere on the 
nternet. We do however, make use of up-to-date web site technology where appropriate 
an have in place visit tracking software, to give us a wide range of statistics, such as how 
many people are visiting, what type of screen display they are using and which other web 
sites they tanked to us from. We also have a no, Ncatim ^, cm „, enabL tors to receive 
an e-mail telhng them when we have updated the site. Other features currently under test 

1 hopefully soon I 

o be implemented include a full-text search for the whole I 
Perhaps surprisingly, mosi o| these laclities are free to the 

However, what really counts on the World Wide Web is content n 
we are trying hard to increase the information value of the site. The : 
large amount of Society information, and items such as abstracts 
extracts from BPS reports of about 100 years ago, pteridophyte 
Ferns' and links to other pteridological web sites. Other things eui 
basic fern 'information sheets", a book list (with links to on-Iin 
'Where to see Ferns' w ith pictures and maps. 

Some Other Initiatives 

There are two e-mail message distribution lists: BPS and BPS-Co 
participants to send a message to the list, which is then automatical 
other members. This can be very useful as the equivalent of a ne\ 
notices. The BPS list is open to all BPS members for matters of gent 
to ' ' to subscribe) and the BPS-Cc 

set up, e.g. for regional groups or special interest groups, if there was a demand. 
Uc are looking at the possibility of scanning some o\ the Society's past publications an 
records. These could then be made available on the weh sue. or sold on CD ROM Hi 
would make them much more accessible and also ensure that archive copies exist. 
hKTcasmgiy. the preparation of the printed journals (and other Society publications* is don 
electronically, using word-processing and page setting programs. As well as cutting tun 
s that the final publication is exactly as the editor intended an 
c copy means that it can be used for search and indexing and i 

How to Gain Access 

Today, everyone can get access to the World Wide Web and e-mail for. at most, the 
a cheap rate telephone call. Many service providers (ISPs) now offer the basic subs 
for free. Even if you don't have a PC. you can still access the World Wide Web ant 
at a public facility such as an "Internet Cafe' or a public library (where use of the ten 
usually free). Help is usually available at such places. If anyone has serious difl 
getting on-line, please get in touch (by "phone!). 
How to Help 

AH of the things discussed above need time and effort to implement. In particular, ti 
site depends upon the steady supply of new material to keep it up-to-date and attrat 
visitors. Many (if not all) members could probably contribute something. Esse 
anything about pteridology. growing or botany, text or pictures, which is of 'publ 
quality', can probably be used somewhere on the site. A web site has a number o! un, 
advantages over traditional printed publications, e.g. there are no serious size limit 
either in total or for individual items, it can be frequently updated and large 
•'lustrations are very cheaply published. All of this means dial items thai might be u 
to publish on paper, can be very easily dealt with on the web site. Please th.nk aboi 
you could contribute. 

One role we are particularly keen to fill is that of desk-top-publishing / technical edil 
the Society's journals and other publications. We need someone with a little time a, 
e desk-top-pub.ishing aspects. Th, may sound more ^complex 
m f„^w>. ™;th *• word-processor, such as MS Word, you coo* 

anyone needs any further explanation abut how they could help, 
'out it, please coii « of the desk-top-pubhshmg. Josephine I 



Herb Wagner was born in Washington, DC. 
on 29th August 1920. At that time 
Washington was still a small city, and parks 
and countryside were close at hand. Herb 
became interested in the natural sciences at 
an early age. He came to know several 
government and Smithsonian scientists 
including William R. Maxon and Conrad 
V. Morton (Smithsonian pteridologists), 
Edgar T. Wherry (Department of Agriculture 
mineralogist and later plant taxonomist at the 
University of Pennsylvania) and J.F. Gates 
Clark (Smithsonian lepidopterist). He 
completed his undergraduate work at the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1942. 

ivigator in the U.S. Navy's air 


Caribbean, but spent most of his time in the 

Pacific, especially on Guam. Battles had 

scarcely come to an end on some Pacific 

tr 1920 -2000 islands, and he found that butterflies were 

greatly attracted to the corpses thai laj 

beyond the defence perimeters of the American installations. Although he could easily have 

tlent of waving a white flag and kept 

i He gave his butterfly collections to 

plant collections to the University of California, 

iversity of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 

perimeters of the American 
i sniper, a butterfly net was the < 
:n collecting either butterflies or 

Berkeley, and the Un 

itinued his univ 

ation, comple 

, I'h.D 

* California in 1950. He was officially a student of Prof. Lincoln Constance, 
but Edwin B. Copeland, who had retired to Berkeley from the Philippines before the «*. 

cipal mentor. His dissertation was on the svstemat.cs ol the H, 
genus Diellm (Aspleniaceae). During his time at Berkeley, he met and married Moreno 
ho was completing a PhD dissertation on the moiphologx ol the Pele-ena^ - 
It is said that then nurtship mh im ed h rcadm specimen labels in the 
t California hprh:,ri„ m 

y of California! 
|n 1951, after a post-doctoral 
Wagners settled in Ann Arbor 
University. He joined uV RPS ;, 

v and the Gray Herbarium, the 

1, K l aeepied a position at the 
smsprm-llora, plant evolution 

member of more than 240 c 
rf Botany (or Biology, as it 

! the Department 

At the same time. Herb mai 

ntained a busv research » 

taxonomy of Botrychium and t 

he pteridophytes of Hawaii. 

inquiring mind, he investigate 

:d many phenomena in di\ 

butterflies. From his interest i 

n phylogenv and e\olutiot 

divergence index and its visual 

representation, which has 

He published more than 400 scientific papers. 
Herb was the director of the University's Matthaei Botanical Gardens from 1966 to 1971. 
He was interested in outreach, in pointing out the importance o! the hiological sciences to 
everyone's life, and he often gave talks to citizen groups. He was honoured main times h\ 
the University and by scientific societies and was elected to membership in the National 
Academy of Sciences in 1985. 

His hobbies were butterflies, especially the taxonomicalb dil'licult little blue skippers, and 
mineralogy, probably as a result of his early contacts with J. K Gates (lark and Hdgar 
Wherry. Florence and he displayed his best mineralogical specimens at home, and even 
year's Christmas card was a colour drawing of a different butterfly. 

Although he officially retired in 1991, Herb continued his activities much as before, albeit 
slowed slightly by heart and circulatory difficulties. Herb died on Sth ,lanuar\ 2000 at the 
age of 79. He is survived by his wife of 5 1 years and by his children Warren and Margaret. 
and by two grandsons, Reid and Haven. A memorial was held on April 2nd that nearh 
overflowed a large auditorium in the Rackham School of Graduate Studies on the 
University of Michigan campus. By any measure, he was the principal American 
pteridologist of the latter half of the twentieth century. 

Warren TiERB' Wagner - A Personal Appreciation 

When I took up the post of Pteridologist at the then British Museum (Natural History I m 

1958, I automatically received the many reprints sent to my predecessor, A.H.G. Alston. 

Among them were stimulating papers from a Professor in Ann Arbor, Herb Wagner, with 

whom I soon struck up a correspondence. In 1964 the International Botanical Congress was 

hosted at Edinburgh and although not an official delegate from the Museum. I was 

encouraged to fly up for a day to attend a mini-symposium on pteridology at which both 

Herb and Irene Manton were speaking. 

At a coffee break after his talk, Herb came over to me and characteristically hailed me as it 

an old friend, accepting me as a member of the international tern tratertut} (small as it wasi 

in spite of the fact that I was a 'greenhorn' who was 

diversity of ferns worldwide. I remember a lunch in a basaw 

Prof. Manton and Herb argued the merits of plant n 

alloploid origins of the Asplenium and Dryopteris species that tlu 

evaluating. Nothing was resolved - nor has ever been and the topic is stifl H 

was then. At the Quillwort Conference in Douglas. Geo, gi, in March J 

absence was sadly lamented,, the subject was again debated h> Herb s students o, two 


In 1967 Herb was invited to speak at a biological symposium '" Liverpool a. 

were consecutive I suggested he joined the BPS excursion to Kettlev 

thoroughly enjoyed himself rushing up and down ™" 

Hymenophyllaceae gametophytes which he and his s 

described as spreading far beyond the geographical rang- 

in North America. Herb later wrote to me about the excur 

versify in 1989. who recognised the 
ir Derwent Water whilst looking for 

Over the next 30 years Herb (and his wife Florence, also a botanist of repute) kept in touch 
and \ isited London and my home in Otford. I visited them in Ann Arbor in 1970 for several 
da\s and again in 1995. On both occasions u, , hvbrids in 

delightful Michigan woods and although in I °95 Herb look ferning at a more leisurclv 
pace, his enthusiasm was just as strong and stimulating - worth the flying visit for a three 
da\ weekend' I had hoped to persuade Herb and Florence to come and hunt Botrwhiitm in 


l»34 - 

K anion Riha was born on 24th April 1934 in Mexico City; he joined the BPS in 1998. 
Ramon was Professor at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (1955-1991) and 
Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (1974-1999) in the Department of 
Biology/Structural Botany and Systematics. He authored many papers on the taxonomy, 
llonstics. conservation, spore banks, bibhographv and morphogenesis of ferns and was 
eoeditor o( the pteridophyte volume (vol. 1 ( ^] Flora Mvsoamericumi. He was one of the 
first people to study this group of plants in Mexico. 

He was patient with all his students and his oil ice was open to them all day - no 
appointment was necessary. He was highly disciplined, being demanding in his work, in the 
presentation of his papers and in his correspondence lie wrote ami spoke well and 
frequently liked to explain the meaning of a term or to improve the accuracy of the 
manuscripts that his studenis presented to him. Ramon had a well-developed sense of 
friendship and solidarity with his collaborators and pupils, and he did not tolerate any kind 
of dishonesty on the part of those associated with him. He was a ver\ special person who 
liked to make jokes and laugh at them himself; he also had a beautiful voice that all enjoyed 
on field trips or parties. He died in his home of a heart attack on 1 3th December 1999. 

Leticia Pacheco 

Dr JOSEF HOLUB 1930 - 1999 

Josef Holub began his scientific career at the Department of Botany. Charles University. 
Prague, but most of his life was devoted to work at the Institute of Botany, Pruhonice. 
Among other duties, he was Editor-in-chief of Preslia and President of the Czech Botanical 

His studies embraced the taxonomy and nomenclature ol several vascular plant families but 
it is his work on pteridophytes, especially Lycopodiophvta. that we ma) remember most. He 
was a great 'splitter', grouping many spec'ies m ,n •micro-encra- on' intuition rather than 
through monographic studies. In Lycopod.aecac tor instance, be recognised eleven genera 
where most botanists would now accept four or live. However, he did jolt main botanists 
'out of a groove' in seeing these larger, often ancient, genera In a new, phylogenetic, light- 
He had a sound understanding of nomenclatural rules and a "ood command of English 
both when reading and writing, and h,s case lo, undesundme boil, Newman's and 
Wollaston's concepts of species in relation to Dnopicrh honrri [Newman] and 
IT 11 * '"" {L,sm '< ^>"aston| was thoro, h md ell explained in print [Folio Geobot 
fhytotax. iPraha) 2: 329-332. 1967], brincins the issue to the attention ol British botanists. 

ed Britain in 1967 at the invitation of the Flora Europaea Committee and I 
meet him. In spite of working under austere conditions during the 
le in Czechoslovakia, he was a good correspondent and welcomed warmly 
any who got permission to visit him. 

Clive Jermy 

Wing Cdr ERIC BARER 1923 - 2000 

It is with regret that the death of Eric Baker on 12th August 2000 has to be reported. 
Eric joined our Society in 1993 with his wife, Rita, though he had been out on field trips 
with the Leeds & District group prior to that. After becoming a member he also made 
regular trips, accompanied by Rita, with the North West group as well as participating in 
various National field and indoor meetings. The Leeds group used to man a stand at a local 
fete in Harrogate to promote the Society and to sell a few plants to raise funds, and Eric 
always drove over from his home near Clitheroe to help man the stand for three or four 
hours. He also brought some very good plants for sale. 

He became an avid collector of garden ferns as his knowledge of these plants increased and 
his garden was a joy to behold. Everything he planted seemed to grow to perfection. 
Eric was elected to the Committee in 1 995 and he also served as minutes secretary, a task 
which requires a good deal of patience. Eric will be greatly missed by the Society and 
especially by the two regional groups to which he was certainly a great asset. I personally 
am saddened to lose such a good friend and colleague. We extend our condolences to Rita. 

J.H. Bouckley 

BETSY KOHLER 1934-2000 

Betsy Kohler became a member of the Society after visiting Southport Flower Show in 
1991. Members of the Leeds and District group will be particularly saddened by the death 
of this very popular member. Betsy was regularly seen at National as well as Group 
meetings and will be greatly missed by many Society members, especially those new to the 
world of ferns, as she had a unique method of describing the intricate differences between 
various species. 

She was very keen on sailing and during a boating holiday on the Clyde there was an 
involuntary gybe which caused her to fall and hit her head. Betsy suffered injuries from 
which she died on 6th October 2000. Our sympathies extend to her three sons and one 

J.H. Bouckley 


We were also sorry to learn of the death of the following members and other pteridolo, 

Mr Anthony Marriage of Lyme Regis who joined the Society in 1986. 

Mr Richard Regan of Derby who joined the Society in 1995. 

Mrs G. Soltau of Birkenhead who joined the Society in 1997. 

Mr Jeffrey Thomas of Hinckley who joined the Society in 1997. 

Dr Charles H. Lamoureux. Professor and Director of the Lyon Adytum. Honolulu. Haw 

i Lord of Austwick wh 

i of ferns and was \ 


new members 1999; * new members 2000, ** new members 2001; # members rejoined 2000 
Amey, Mr M.G., 22 Railway Place, Hertford, Herts. SGI 3 7BS 

' 1diiE6 3SJ 

Barlow. Mr H.W.B.. I Kent ME14 4PL 

Bell, Dr G.T.. 8 Mail 7SP, Scotland 

PL 5 3ES 
Blesing. Miss E„ 71 A Old Dover Road, Capel-k Cent CT18 7HS 

Chambers, Mr CM Sherwood, Notts. NG5 3EH 

Charlton, Re\ . C. 35 Avondale Road, Mottingham, London SE9 4SN 
Corbett. Mr A., West Park, Lower Andem dl PL10 IDT 

Coudret, Dr C., 35 Rue Riquet, Toulouse 3100, France 

Cnddle. Mrs M.V.. 5 Storey i jeness, Lines. PE24 5LR 

Cross, Mr N.J., 1 Forest Edge. Buckhurst Hill, Essex IG9 5AA 

Davies. Mr D Ty'r Ysgol, Rhandirmwv n i rrvrddin SA20 OPA, Wales 

Jcken* Mr J.C.. 79 Habberley Road, Kidden DY11 5PN 

78871° Tlnd^' Mf M " C/ ° 5 ' 5 Automobiles (MRF T y res >' Jilchor RoacL Korimganj, Assam 
Edgar. Mr I.R.H., Hendre, Abererch, Pwllheli, Gwynedd Wales 
Edgingtor^ Prof. J. A., 19 Mecklenburgh Square, London WC1N 2AD 

.1 -In-Wharfedale, West Yorks. LS21 IJZ 
Fernando, Dr M.L.B.H., Peragas Handiya Road. Ulhitiyawa, Wennappuwa, Sri Lanka 

n, Norfolk NR28 0BZ 

Goodwin, Mr D., 128 Shay Lane, Walton, Wakefield, West Yorks WF2 6LB 
rlT ^ m D^ r ^u A • l2 ' 4 /4 ' ' I 105, USA 

us. Belle Grove Place, Spital Tongues, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, 

SSk Mr m"V\ 8 ,° L c n T d °L Road ' Whitna sh, Leamington Spa, Warwicks. CV31 2JY 
HaSt^ M A Mre ,S-T., Woodlands, Blindcrake. Cockermouth, Cumbr,aCA13 OQJ 

; r A.R., Fernleigh , 75 Sunnybank Road, Griffithstown, Pontypool, Gwent NP4 

5LN, Wales 
Henderson, fl 

Road, Collegefields, Shrewsbury, Shropshir 


Hlt! , Mrpp Ha fl y ; Bl ? n - LL - LD1 6EA > "«• 

HufhS' m p n ' , ™ ashle Drive ' Nacogdoches, TX 75964, USA 

ire LL18 4TB, Wales 
HumS Mr' fi r u ^ ^ Sta Hook, Hants. RG27 8AQ 

I^ine Mrr m u dd ° n Cl \ ase ' 42 Merr ybent, Darlington, Durham DL2 2LE 
JablonJd S; p. «f-T° n Manor ' Belfast BT7 3EL > Northern Ireland 
Jack Mr. in" ^'?f 1 T 1 I St , rasSe 2 ' Orenburg, Niedersachsen D - 26125, Germany 
Tnrl m p °o ne ^" d A Half ' Southern R °ad, London N2 9LH 
Son M ft^ 19 Silver Street ' Chacombe, Banbury, Oxon. 0X17 2JR 
Kohoi r Mr r J Coltbndge V iuan EN12 6 AG, Scotland 

KriSd Mr Y ' ^iT Z eg 3 ' Prietitz ' D " 01920 ' Ge ^ny 
Une Mr n a i d! ^ HU ^ keS ' Berin gen/Mersch, L-7591, Luxembourg 
Lawe's Mr P p \^^ y £ lose ' S 127 ODR 

Laws br H 75 £5"? ?°^ Roundswe11 ' Barnstaple, Devon EX31 3SR 
Lew s Mr f 43 Y£ ' % T ^^ H ° Dart ' TAS 7004 ' Australia 
Lukev Mr P'i \/ e °S a R ° ad ' Romf ord, Essex RM7 7AU 

SSudS m | S»— Bri ^y, Bams.ey, S. Yorkshire S72 9LB 

Makela mU M a inrio J eIfold Road ' MurT ^ East Kilbride G75 0DW ' Scotland 
ManionMrJT Viqh. . ,1! 0136, USA 

Marsh Ms J Qfi P,r? !?Tb «0, USA 

MS D J V 39Hnt le T ROad n H r e Hi "' London SE24 9NW 
Martineau tfrP 4 ?f? ^f' Bolhn g ton > Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 5LT 
McLeod 1 MrN P £ n g 5 S* > ( >• Canada 

H LnS,r bab ^ R0ad ' Child wall, Liverpool L16 7QH 

I wn Street, Shipton Thorpe, York, N. Yorks. Y043 3PA 
^ ^L.M., Beynhurst House, Innings Lane, White Waltham, Maidenhead, Berks. SL6 3RU 

Murillo, ] 

Murphy. Mr S.B.. P.O. Box 2301, Mount Vernon, WA 9 , 

Nelson, Mr M.A., 72 Princes Road, Teddington, Middx. TW1 1 ORU 

Olney. Mrs A are. Surrey GU27 1AQ 

KN5 5EW 
Parker, Mr G., 9 C.- 
Peters. Dr J.. 31 Jacks Road. Saltcoats, Ayrshire KA21 5SH, Scotland 
Peters, Mr G., 16 Roxy Avenue, Chadwell Heath, Essex RM6 4AN 
Pope. Mr S.. 37 Devonshire Place, Brighton, Sussex BN2 1QB 

I 'ai k. Barnslev, Nr Cirencester. Glos. GL7 5EG 
Reed. Mr G.. 45 ' SM6 8SH 

Reeve. Mr A.N., 68 Sebert Road fblkIP327EG 

Rich. Mr P.W.. 2 Garden Coti encester, Glos. GL7 5EG 

Roberts. Dr B.E., 9 Ladywood Mead. Leeds, West Yorks. LS8 2LZ 

:L \ ictorm ^204 Vustralia 
Row ell. Mr S.H.. Drayton Hall. Hall Lane. Dravton. Norwich. Norfolk NR8 6DP 

K . Mooni 4, Tartu, 50412, Estonia 
S.iinuel. Mr H.S.. 3 Glemiew. Vnvsddu. Crosskeys, GwentNPll 7LG. Wales 
Vmchc/. [),C. .I ;1R |,n Botanic.) Nacional. Carretera del Rocio km 3.5. Calaba/ar. Boveros. HahanaCP 19230, Cuba 
Sarazin, Mr A., Alleestr. 13". Bodmin 44793. Germany 
Schedler, Mr J., 5 1 Poulett Gardens, Twickenham. Middlesex TW1 4QS 
Selway, Miss J.E., '"Oak Park", Exeview Road. Exmouth. Devon EX8 5AZ 
U. Germany 
lale Road, Wood Lane, Stoke-On-Trent. Staffs. ST7 8PH 
Spaniel. \Is(;.. u,s5 Soutl i v TN 381 1 1 - 6841, USA 

M.J., 20 Green Close, Truro, Cornwall TR1 2DD 

•o 01. Czech Republic 
Takamiya, Dr M., Dept. of En to University. 

Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan 
Tidman, Dr M.J., 30 Greenhill Gardens, Edinburgh EH 10 4BP. Scotland 
• timer. Mr J.W.. 96 Broadwood Avenue, Ruislip, Middx. HA4 7XT 
Turney, Dr T.W., 1 7 McLaren S 19, Australia 

*Urquhart, Mr P.G. & Miss A. Sn a. OX6 9YU 

-now. Essex CM6 2AA 

de West, Rothbury, Northumberland NE65 7 YN 
Webb, Miss CM Y02 4YQ 

Weston \lisl Lindhns Riseh ' el . s. LN2 2LD 

aureh Road, Leckhampton, Cheltenham. Glos. GL53 0PR 
Winning, Mr L.H., 75 Cardinal Avenue, Kingston Upon Thames, Surrey KT2 5RZ 


Ashcroft, Dr C, 1 Claude Street, Dunkirk, Nottingham, Notts. NG7 2LA 

Barcelona, Dr J i ial Museum of Natural History. Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington DC, 20560 - 0166, USA 
'' ^ n \Ii R B ( Fhornhill Lodge, North Road, Sherborne, Dorset DT9 3JW 
Boudrie, Mr M Rue Marmontel, Clermont-Ferrand, 63000, France 

Bridges, DrK.M asgow Gl 1 5EA, Scotland 

Cox, Mr S.J., Fern Cottage, 1 8 H ■ ""'hants. NN9 6QA 

de Winter, Dhr. W.P., Plevierenweide 82, Nl-6708 Bx Wageningen, N- 1 — ' 
Diekjobst. Dr I nambach, D 55765, C 

Dufourd, Mr M., 2137 Av. Roger Salengro, Chaville. 
Faulkner, Mr J. W .Somerset E 

das, Mr M . Dept. of Biology Syed Nabib Ali College, P.O. Ah Nagor, P.S. Biambazar. Sylhet, 

Godfre^Mr^An Oiseann, Ord, Sleat, Isle of Skye :IV44 J8RN Scotland 
Hennipman Pr 3723 HN, Netherlands 

Horn, Mr K Maria-Gebbe- D-9 1080, Germany 

Kato, Dr M., Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Tokyo. 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 
v Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan 

Krause, Mr S., Sandkaule 15, Bonn, D - 53 1 1 1 Germany InivPrs; i r v of Texas 

Leon, Dr B., c/o Prof. Kenneth Young, Dept. of Geography GRG 334, Lniversity of Texas, 
Austin, Texas TX 787 1 2, USA 

Ceredigion SY24 5HL, Wales 


Meetings Secretary: P.J. Acock 

Meetings Subcommittee: R.G. Ackers. N.J. Hards, J.M. Ide, A. Leonard, P.H. Ripley 

Sat. 3 March Spring Indoor Meeting & AGM - Cambridge 

Location: Gilmour Building, Cambridge Botanic Garden 

Leader: Graham Ackers 

In 30 Mar. - Mon. 2 Apr. Long Weekend Field Meeting - Guernsey 

Centre: New Vazon Bay Hotel, Castel 

Leaders: Trevor Taylor & Andrew Leonard 

Sat. 23 - Sun. 24 June Long Weekend Field Meeting - Cornwall 

Centre: St Columb Major Leader: Ian Benallick 

Mon. 23 - Thurs. 26 July Symposium: Fern Flora Worldwide, Threats and Responses 

Sat.28-Tues.31 July 

Thurs. 1 6 - Sat. 1 8 Aug. Southport Flower Show: BPS Stand 

Further Info.: Matt Busby 
Sat. 8 Sept. Day Visit - Wakehurst Place & Loder Valley, Sussex 

Leader: Paul Ripley 

I History Museum, Lond 


Regional Meetings 

For details of additional meetings in the following areas, please contact the regional organisers, 
enclosing a stamped addressed envelope. 

Leeds & District B. Wright, 130 Prince Rupert Drive, Tockwith, York Y026 7PU 

South-East England P.H. Ripley, North Lodge, Dene Park Gardens, Shipbourne Road, Tonbndge, 

fcast Angha B.R. Stevenson. Willow Cottaee. Cowl, nee. Newmarket. Suffolk CBS 9QB 

W.h-U . s. England Mrs M. Garstang, Overbeck, Pennybridge, Ulverston, Cumbria LA12 7RQ 
Cornwall Miss R.J. Murpl | Camborne, Cornwall TR 14 OBH 

Scotland Dr H s McHaffie , g0 Granton Road Ed i n burgh EH5 I AH 

Changes of Address contd 

Maerz. Mr G.. f D _ 7nn7fi riPrm . mv 

MuST^ ^Pennsylvania 18603-9801, US 

J 9p£ 

S^no^'?J° k .^ ' P! I ouestolt. Suffolk NR32 3PT 

UnswoTh M f N ' Attn - The Secrelun V \ lerseyside PR8 2BZ 

>> Mr I.. Newers Prospect, 


Silverdale, Lancashire LA5 OTY 

Stock a very comprehensive collection of 


Catalogue on request 


Honeybourne Road, Pebworth, nr Stratford on Avon, Warwickshire CV37 8XT 

Hardy and tender ferns 

Begonias, Gloxinias, Hederas, Hydrangeas, Primroses, Arum Lilies 

and plants for the cool greenhouse 

Catalogue on request 


Hardy and half hardy ferns 
Kyre Park, Tenbury Wells, Worcestershire WR15 8RP 

Please send stamped addressed envelope for list 


Specialising in North American and British hardy ferns 

Judith Jones 
1911 4th Avenue West, Seattle, Washington 98119, USA 

Send two International Reply Coupons for catalogue 


R.N. Timm 

The Fern Nursery, Grimsby Road, Binbrook, Lincolnshire LN3 6DH 

Please send stamped addressed envelope for list 


Specialist Fern Grower 
A wide range of hardy and greenhouse ferns, especially Adiantums 
Culag, Green Lane, Nafferton, nr Driffield, East Yorkshire Y025 OLF 

Send £1 for catalogue 


Oakington Road, Cottenham. Cambridge CB4 4TW 

Hardy British and foreign ferns 

(together with over 700 choice herbaceous and woody plants) 

Please send six first class stamps for catalogue